Аннотация. В статье приводятся результаты исследования, позволившего классифицировать уровни интеллектуальных ресурсов работников на предприятиях отрасли; определить виды кадровой политики, соответствующие уровню организации управления; оценить влияние организационных уровней управления интеллектуальными ресурсами работников на интеллектуализацию персонала и результаты инновационной деятельности предприятия; определить чрезвычайные условия эффективного управления интеллектуальными ресурсами работников на инновационных предприятиях отрасли.
Ключевые слова: персонал, менеджмент, интеллектуальные ресурсы работников, инновационная деятельность, промышленные предприятия.
ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL RESOURCES OF WORKERS AT THE ENTERPRISES OF THE INDUSTRY
Abstract. The results of a research which have allowed to classify from a position of infrastructure and reproduction approach organizational managements of levels of intellectual resources of workers at the enterprises of the industry are given in article; to identify the types of personnel policy corresponding to the level of the organization of management; to estimate influence of organizational levels of management of intellectual resources of workers on intellectualization of personnel and results of innovative activity of the enterprise; to define emergency conditions of effective management of intellectual resources of workers at the innovative enterprises of the industry.
Keywords: personnel, management, intellectual resources of workers, innovative activity, industrial enterprises.
The fact is that currently a new post-industrial technological way of the sixth generation is forming, its driver is the integration of nano-, bio- and information technologies, and it inevitably entails global structural economic changes and forms entirely new models of production and management. Resources are updated differently under conditions, first of all resources that are accumulated within human intellectual capacities; they are soundly viewed as intellectual-resource basis of technological modernization of the economy on the innovation base.
As a result, there is a necessity to revalue targets of industrial enterprises management, particularly in terms of personnel management on the basis of innovative development priorities raising management interest to the intellectualization of personnel and employees’ innovative competencies development on the basis.
The relevance of the scientific problematic, the lack of employees’ intellectual resource management research of innovative industrial enterprises have determined the choice of the theme, goals and problems to be investigated, their findings are presented in this article.
Main characteristics of similar industrial subjects of innovative activities included into research sample frame are presented in Table 1. The selection of enterprises was made on the following criteria: the size of the enterprise, its economic activity kind, and its functions in the conditions of innovative processes activization, the type of innovations, innovative process completeness, industrial strategy type, and innovative potential.
Total data segments of empirical analysis were conducted according to Russian industrial enterprises for 2014 – 2016. General sample frame of more than 200 industrial Russian enterprises with employees at least 1,000 people was analyzed. Empirical analysis was conducted according to materials of large industrial enterprises due to, firstly, their role in the modernization of the national economy, and, secondly, the great development of human resource management systems in large industrial sectors.
It was revealed that employees’ intellectual resources management as the direction of management activities is still enough outlined and determined in HR management with limited number of large industrial enterprises (in the amount of 102 from 200 of the investigated enterprises). HR management of the given 102 enterprises selected from the sample frame according to the criterion of relatively higher level of employees’ intellectual resources management (hereinafter referred as EIRM) of the enterprise was subjected to a deeper analysis to differentiate innovative industrial enterprises according to EIRM organization levels. Following the purpose, industrial enterprises of the sample frame were divided into groups according to: types of economic activity (Fig. 1) and HR number (Fig. 2).
Main characteristics of industrial enterprises of sample frame
Fig. 1. Distribution of industrial enterprises according to economical activity types: 1 – Oil and gas enterprises (extraction and processing of gas and oil) – 12 enterprises (11. 8 %); 2 – Machine building enterprises – 48 enterprises (47 %); 3 – Petro chemistry enterprises, chemistry and petro chemistry producers – 17 enterprises (16. 7 %); 4 – Diversified holding companies, concerns – 1 enterprise (0.98 %); 5 – Other enterprises (manufacturing activity) – 11 enterprises (10. 8 %); 6 -Extraction of mineral resources – 4 enterprises (3. 9 %); 7 – Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water – 9 enterprises (8. 8 %)
Fig. 2. Distribution of industrial enterprises according to HR number groups: I – approximately 1 thousand people – 25 enterprises (24. 5 %); II – 2-5 thousand people – 29 enterprises (28. 4 %); III – 5-10 thousand people – 16 enterprises (15. 7 %); IV – 10 – 20 thousand people – 12 enterprises (11. 8 %); V – more than 20 thousand people – 13 enterprises (12. 8 %); VI – more than 100 thousand people – 7 enterprises (6. 9 %)
The classification of different organizational levels of employees’ intellectual resources management of industrial enterprises according to mentioned criterion was offered:
a) passive level – presentation in HR enterprise organization not less than one element of employees’ intellectual resources management (reproduction process of employees’ intellectualization as a complete cycle cannot be organized);
b) medium-active level – presentation in HR enterprise organization not less than two elements of employees’ intellectual resources management (organization of reproduction process of employees’ intellectualization (full cycle) is essentially hard);
c) active level – presentation in HR enterprise organization not less than three elements of employees’ intellectual resources management (reproduction process of employees’ intellectual resources can be arranged, subject to further development of HR specialization functions);
d) focused-active level – presentation in HR enterprise organization a complete set of elements of employees’ intellectual resources management (reproduction process of employees’ intellectualization is organized and effective as intellectual infr a- structure of innovative process);
Identification of HR policy types of industrial enterprises
As separate elements of enterprise employees’ intellectual resources management there were considered: forecasting and planning of employees’ intellectual r e- sources: establishing of the enterprise needs for the current and/or future periods in the identified level of employees’ intellectual potential; formation of employees’ i n- tellectual resources: HR selection, short-listing and formation of high potentials for the implementation of innovative development plans of the enterprise; development of employees’ intellectual resources: qualitative HR mastering according to the needs of innovative sphere of the enterprise; usage of employees’ intellectual resources in the innovative activity process able to the formation of employees’ innovative competence; transformation of employees’ innovative competence into economic potential of the innovative active industrial subject.
Identification of HR policy types of industrial enterprises
According to the level of employees’ intellectual resources management there were suggested to distinguish certain types of HR policies of the industrial enterprises. Their identification with the point of innovative development priority is shown in Table 2.
The dependence on the level of employees’ intellectual resources management organization from factors of an industrial enterprise size (headcount) and its economic activities kind were determined empirically [1; 2]. Also there was obtained a certain division of enterprises sample frame into groups in accordance with the organizational level of employees’ intellectual resources management (Fig. 3, 4).
Fig. 3. Quantitative distribution of industrial enterprises according to different organizational levels of EIRM depending on the employees’ number: I – approximately 1 thousand people; II – 2-5 thousand people; III – 5-10 thousand people; IV – 10 – 20 thousand people; V – more than 20 thousand people; VI – more than 100 thousand people.
Fig. 4. Quantitative distribution of industrial enterprises according to different organizational levels of EIRM depending on economical activity type : 1 – Oil and gas enterprises (extraction and processing of gas and oil); 2 – Machine building enterprises; 3 – Petro chemistry enterprises, chemistry and petro chemistry producers; 4 – Diversified holding companies; 5 – Other enterprises (manufacturing activity); 6 -Extraction of mineral resources; 7 – Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water
Medium-active and active levels of employees’ intellectual resources management are more common for large enterprises employing more than 5 thousand people (groups III, IV, V, VI). Elements of formation, development and effective usage of employees’ intellectual capital in traditional and innovative activities dominate mainly in the employees’ intellectual resources management. Enterprises employing 1-5 thousand people (groups I, II) have passive approach and corresponding to it organizational level of employees’ intellectual resources management, i.e. they have much less pronounced employees’ innovative orientation management at predominance of functional element of employees’ intellectual resources management. On the other hand, according to economic activity an active organizing level of employees’ intellectual resources management is found to be more common in oil and gas companies (exploration and processing of oil, gas), as well as enterprises for production and distribution of electricity, gas and water. Among enterprises of other economic activities there is a relatively higher proportion of passive and medium-active organizational management: for machine building, petrochemical, other kinds of manufacturing activity, and mining production.
From the point of view of solving the problems of forming the innovational development trajectory of modern economy at the sixth post-industrial technological structure the focused-active level of employees’ intellectual resources management of enterprises becomes necessary, it is represented by a single set of interrelated elements formed on the principle of reproductive balance of employees’ intellectual resources for innovative development of enterprises.
The list of the used literature:
Yakovleva E.V., Miller A.E. Vector orientation of management of intellectualization of personnel of modern industrial enterprises // News of higher education institutions. Sociology. Economy. Policy 2014. №3, pp. 20-23.
Yakovleva E.V. Forming of the controlling mechanism intellectualization of personnel of industrial enterprises: history, prerequisites, basic elements: Monograph. M.: Creative economy, 2016. – 114 p.
Источник: Научный журнал «Вестник факультета управления СПбГЭУ». 2018. Выпуск 3 (ч.2)