Н.Н.Покровская, Вэй Фэн
Аннотация. В статье представлен анализ статистики инвестиционного сотрудничества России и Китая, отражающий динамику взаимных вложений двух стран и роль инфраструктурных проектов как катализатора инвестиционных процессов. Показано, что развитие инфраструктурных проектов оказывает положительное влияние не только на отраслевые функциональные возможности, но и выступает системным фактором развития социального, культурного и финансово-экономического сотрудничества в целях инновационного роста, развития человеческих ресурсов и адаптации национальных и региональных экономических систем к требованиям экономики знаний.
Ключевые слова: инновации, регуляция НИОКР, региональная инновационная инфраструктура, экономика знаний.
N.N.Pokrovskaia, Wei Feng
EASTERNISATION OF INNOVATIVE GROWTH: CHINA-RUSSIA INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Abstract. The article examines the statistics of investment cooperation between Russia and China, reflecting the dynamics of mutual investment flows between the two countries and the role of infrastructure projects as a catalyst for investment processes. The development of infrastructure projects affects not only the sectoral functional capabilities, but also acts as a systemic factor for the development of social, cultural and financial-economic cooperation in the purposes of innovative growth, human resource development and adaptation of national and regional economies to the requirements of the knowledge economy.
Keywords: innovation, R&D regulation, regional innovative infrastructure, economics of knowledge.
The innovative growth and knowledge-driven economy are considered as the most significant axes for the development of the societies within the XXI century. The infrastructure and safety issues represent the two important fields of interest and of value for the human communities within the digital era. The scientific research and technological design are the main sectors producing the added value, the agricultural industry and infrastructure projects reflect the engineering performance of the technological solutions. Innovative capacities are the main element for the nation’s wealth .
The Russian economic policy emphasizes the innovative growth oriented to the structural reform of Russian economy, the labour market has an important demand for the high-qualified labour in all sectors and the soviet background in education and science still helps to manage this demand. The federal government programs are aimed to cope with the national economy’ dependence on the natural resources’ e x- port, that requires significant efforts to stimulate innovation development based on normative regulation , including tax incentives [5; 6], and the institutional changes , such as business-accelerating structures’ expansion.
The similar process characterises the actual development of the Chinese economy, but with the different aims and reasons. According to the research of Das and N’Diaye , the features of the human resource in China have changed in 2009-2010. The increase of the skilled labour and scarcity in human resources in the most developed provinces  led to the rapid increases in wages in general, starting around 2009 to 2010. China reached the ‘Lewis Turning Point’, where growth is likely to slow down unless new sources of growth can be mobilized, such as innovation and technological development . The cooperation of the both countries on the field of the innovation system support can be fruitful for the both China and Russia as the two emergent economies that have similar goals.
The Sino-Russia cooperation is based on three elements — the climate and geographical proximity that determine the technologies applied and common efforts for transport and communication infrastructures; the historical and cultural basis that are common for both countries and that are related to the close contacts between two people; the scientific and technological cooperation that has a long history with the deep exchange of competencies and the strong collaboration for the discovering and developing the newest fields of knowledge. These three pillars allow the two friendly nations to build the efficient and fruitful sci-tech cooperation within the infrastructure and innovations fields of development.
On 14 May 2017 H.E. Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, has presented the report «Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road» during the Opening Ceremony of Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation as a stage of the development of the Initiative proposed in 2013. On 4 Jul 2017, President Xi Jinping and P. Minister D. Medvedev have supported the upscale cooperation for the Northern Sea Route — Ice Silk Road.
China has been Russia’ largest trade partner during the 7 consecutive years, in the 2015-2017 the leadership of China as a Russian partner is obvious:
The mutual investment of both countries has achieved a peak in 2013-2015, when the programs of institutional support for the infrastructural projects have started:
Source: by Authors, on the basis of the materials of the government of Russia:
Fig. 1. Inward and outward FDI China-Russia, 2007-2017, mln USD
The development of the Belt and Road project as well as of the Ice Silk road will provide the new transport infrastructure, but also will help to improve the communication and the convergence of the interests of the social and economic actors on the largest continent, to assure the closer contacts on the European and Asian economic, social, political and cultural space.
One of the key stones for the better organization of common activity is the financial development. The traditionally implemented use of the reserve currencies, especially, of the USD, in the international transactions can be replaced with the new Euro-Asian institutions, such as the investment banks of the local integrations or BRICS’ financial institutions. Through the new financial infrastructure, the use of the national currencies can be conceived and the potential expansion of Russian Rubble and of Renminbi should be considered as a basis for future deepening cooperation.
On 1 Oct 2016 RMB was included by the IMF in the Special Drawing Rights (SDR) Basket (USD, GBP, EUR, JPY, RMB), China is the first emerging economy with a sound financial system and strong national currency which obtained this global position among the reserve currencies.
The Innovative foreign investing and R&D support is presented in the economic space of Russian and Chinese entrepreneurial activity in the close organization of tax policies in China and in Russia, that represent the innovation and technological development purposes. The tax policies and economic regulation reflect the necessity to take into account the geographical differences of the regions — both countries possess huge territory, China as well as Russia historically had to choose the local points of development and now the countries have a rich experience of the innovative clusters development.
The clustering helps to merge the shortening technology upgrading cycle with R&D activities and commercialisation of research results in industry, especially with standardisation of innovative technologies. The analysis of the creation, acquisition and transfer of knowledge shows, that both formal and informal systems of professional skills and fundamental knowledge are important — in the frame of educational organisations such as universities and learning by performing. Wuhan International University Consortium on Earth Sciences (IUCES) is created for the purpose of «ca r- rying out Sino-foreign cooperation programmes on higher-learning education and scientific research in the field, and sharing educational resources among member institutes» . The example of Chinese involvement into regional networks is given with the China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park in industrial outward-looking province Jiangsu, replicates the public-private partnership models of innovative economic development of the Silicon Valley; 15 international universities and research institutes and more than 100 Fortune 500 companies, including Philips, Nokia, Samsung and BP, have invested in the project development .
The strategy of fostering private business R&D is reflected into the wide range of R&D incentives without threshold or limit to the size of the claim of tax reduction. The stimulating measures concern a scope of activities beyond pure R&D and emphasize the use of technology rather than the final product. Incentives are generally awarded to the party that is funding the R&D and has IP ownership.
The Chinese science and industry had over passed a stage of copying and implementing the technology’ achievements and intellectual property of foreign companies, with a strong State policy of stimulating foreign investment and with an informal acceptance of the direct copying. Today, China develops the national model of the fundamental and applied research and since 2011 attained the world leadership by patent applications. Chinese research and industrial sectors create international technology standards conform to the global requirements. The Chinese technology standards are approved and implemented by international institutions: in 2012, 25 China- submitted proposals were adopted by ISO/IEC . The Chinese research is, thus, recognised on the world level and embraced by the international industrial technological and business community.
The further research projects for deepening the understanding of efficient tools for supporting innovative growth on concrete territory can concern the analysis of the relevant documents and the collecting statistical data of countries and regions, on the basis of summarizing the information, scholars of Russia and China form the analysis of the most efficient enterprises business models and regulative mechanisms.
The societal aim of the infrastructure projects is wider than the search to meet economic challenges. The human beings’ development represents the both economic investment into human capital (intellectual resource and health of human resource) and the technologies to satisfy the basic needs (e.g., food safety) and the social and spiritual needs (such as communication, cultural achievements and self-realisation).
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Источник: Научный журнал «Вестник факультета управления СПбГЭУ». 2018. Выпуск 3 (ч.1)