Статус Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия [рус., англ.] Часть 7

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Sweden

With reservation

 

Switzerland

(Translation)

On the occasion of the signature today of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Swiss Government expressly declare that they will not submit the Treaty to Parliament for its approval until such time as they consider that a sufficient measure of universal support has been obtained by the Treaty.

The Swiss Government also reserve the right to make such declarations as they shall deem necessary at the time of the deposit of their instrument of ratification.

Declaration on ratification (translation):

Recalling that the aim of the Treaty is to prevent those States which do not possess nuclear weapons from manufacturing or acquiring such arms and other nuclear explosive devices, Switzerland ratifies the Treaty in the belief that its provisions are directed solely towards the attainment of that aim and will not have the effect of limiting the use of nuclear energy for other purposes.

Availing itself of the opportunity afforded by the deposit of its instruments of ratification, Switzerland makes the following declaration:

  1. Switzerland recalls that, according to Article IV, research, production and use for peaceful purposes in the nuclear sector do not come within the scope of the prohibitions in Articles I and II. Such activities include in particular the whole field of energy production and allied operations, research and technology in the sector of future generations of nuclear fission or fusion reactors and the production of isotopes.
  2. Switzerland defines the expression «source and special fissionable material», used in Article III, in accordance with the present Article XX of the Statute of the IAEA. Any modification of this interpretation requires Switzerland’s formal approval. It will, furthermore, accept only those interpretations and definitions of the concepts «Equipment or material specially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material», mentioned in Article III, paragraph 2, which it has expressly approved.
  3. Switzerland understands that the application of the Treaty and in particular the control measures will not lead to any discrimination against Swiss industry in international competition.

Swaziland signed the Treaty at London on June 24, 1969.

In a note dated November 27, 1969, the Swiss Government made a declaration, a translation of which reads as follows:

«On the occasion of the signing, on today’s date, of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Swiss Government expressly declares that it will not submit the Treaty to the Parliament for approval until it considers that a sufficient degree of universality has been reached.

«The Swiss Government, moreover, reserves the right to make whatever statements appear necessary at the time of the deposit of the instrument of ratification.»

The instrument of ratification of the Treaty by Switzerland contains a declaration, a translation of the text of which reads as follows:

«Noting that the Treaty is intended to prevent States which do not possess nuclear weapons from producing such weapons and other nuclear explosive devices or acquiring them, Switzerland hereby ratifies the Treaty with a view that its provisions are directed exclusively at the achievement of that goal and will not have the effect of limiting the use of nuclear energy for other purposes.

«Availing itself of this occasion of the deposit of its instruments of ratification, Switzerland makes the following declaration:

  1. Switzerland notes that, according to Article IV, research, production, and use for peaceful purposes in the nuclear sector are not governed by the prohibitions contained in articles I and II. Such activities specifically include the entire field of energy production and related operations, research and technology in the sector of future generations of nuclear fission or fusion reactors, and the production of isotopes.
  2. Switzerland defines the term «source or special fissionable material,» used in article III, in conformity with the current article XX of the Statute of the IAEA. A modification of this interpretation shall require the formal agreement of Switzerland.

Furthermore, Switzerland will accept only such interpretations and definitions of the concepts «equipment or materials specially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material,» mentioned in article III(2), as it has expressly approved.

  1. Switzerland understands that application of the Treaty and particularly the control measures will not lead to discrimination against Swiss industry in international competition.»

 

Syrian Arab Republic

With reservation

«Принятие Договора Сирийской Арабской Республикой и ратификация его Правительством Сирийской Арабской Республики никоим образом не предполагает признания Израиля, как и не влечет за собой вступления с ним в отношения, предусматриваемые его положениями».

 

Tonga

In a Note addressed to the Government of the United Kingdom dated 22 June, 1971, the Government of Tonga declared that it considers itself bound by the Treaty.

The Tonga High Commission in London transmitted to the American Ambassador by note dated July 7, 1971, a note dated June 22, 1971, from the Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Tonga stating as follows:

«The Government of Tonga has examined the Treaty… and declares that it considers itself bound by virtue of the signature of the United Kingdom and pursuant to customary internatonal law. I would therefore request you to consider listing Tonga as a party to this instrument.»

succession as of 04.06.1970

 

Turkey

«In voting in favour of the Treaty on 12 June 1968 at the 22nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly and in signing the Treaty on 28 January 1969, the Turkish Government indicated its intention for eventual ratification.

The Turkish Government is convinced that the Treaty is the most important multilateral arms control agreement yet concluded. By reducing the danger of a nuclear war, it greatly contributes to the process of detente, international security and disarmament.

Turkey believes that her adherence would further the universality of the Treaty and strengthen international nuclear non-proliferation system. It is, however, evident that cessation of the continuing arms race and preventing war technology from reaching dangerous dimensions for the whole of mankind can only be realised through the conclusion of a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control. Furthermore, Turkey would like to underline the non-proliferation obligations of the nuclear-weapon states under relevant paragraphs of the preamble and Article VI of the Treaty. Proliferation of all kinds must be halted and measures must be taken to meet adequately the security requirements of non-nuclear-weapon states.

Continuing absence of such assurances might have consequences that could undermine the objectives and the provisions of the Treaty.

Having included nuclear energy in its development plan as one of the sources of electricity production, Turkey is prepared, as stipulated in Article IV of the Treaty, to cooperate further with the technologically advanced states, on a non-discriminatory basis, in the field of nuclear research and development as well as in nuclear energy production. Measures developed or to be developed at national and international levels to ensure the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons should in no case restrict the non-nuclear weapon states in their options for the application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.»

with declaration

«Правительство Турецкой Республики решило депонировать сегодня грамоту о ратификации Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия.

Голосуя за Договор 12 июня 1968 г. на 22-й сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи Организации Объединенных Наций и подписывая Договор 28 января 1969 г., Турецкое Правительство выразило свое намерение в отношении возможной ратификации.

Турецкое Правительство убеждено, что Договор является наиболее важным многосторонним соглашением по контролю над вооружениями из всех пока заключенных. Уменьшая опасность ядерной войны, он вносит огромный вклад в процесс разрядки, международной безопасности и разоружения.

Турция считает, что ее присоединение послужит дальнейшему развитию универсальности Договора и укрепит систему нераспространения ядерного оружия. Является, однако, очевидным, что прекращение продолжающейся гонки вооружений и предотвращение такого развития ядерной технологии, которое было бы опасным для всего человечества, может быть реализовано только посредством заключения договора о всеобщем и полном разоружении под строгим и эффективным международным контролем. Более того, Турция хотела бы подчеркнуть обязательства по нераспространению, которые несут ядерные державы в силу соответствующих параграфов преамбулы и статьи VI Договора. Любое распространение должно быть остановлено и должны быть предприняты меры для адекватного удовлетворения потребностей безопасности неядерных государств. Сохраняющееся отсутствие соответствующих заверений может повлечь такие последствия, которые способны подрывать цели и положения Договора»

Включив ядерную энергию в план своего развития в качестве одного из источников производства электроэнергии, Турция готова, как это предусмотрено в статье VI Договора, к дальнейшему сотрудничеству с технологически развитыми странами на недискриминационной основе в сфере ядерных исследований и развития, так же, как и в области производства ядерной энергии. Меры, предпринятые или которые будут предприняты на национальном и международном уровнях для обеспечения нераспространения ядерного оружия, ни в коем случае не должны ограничивать неядерные государства в их мероприятиях по применению ядерной энергии в мирных целях».

The instrument of ratification of the Treaty by Turkey is accompanied by a statement, the text of which reads as follows:

«The Government of the Republic of Turkey decided to deposit today the instrument of ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

«In voting in favour of the Treaty on June 12, 1968 at the 22nd session of the United Nations General Assembly and in signing the Treaty on January 28, 1969, the Turkish Government indicated its intention for eventual ratification.

«The Turkish Government is convinced that the Treaty is the most important multilateral arms control agreement yet concluded. By reducing the danger of a nuclear war, it greatly contributed to the process of detente, international security and disarmament.

«Turkey believes that her adherence would further the universality of the Treaty and strengthen international nuclear non-proliferation system. It is however evident that cessation of the continuing arms race and preventing the war technology from reaching dangerous dimensions for the whole mankind can only be realised through the conclusion of a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control. Furthermore, Turkey would like to underline the non-proliferation obligations of the nuclear-weapon states under relevant paragraphs of the Preamble and Article VI of the Treaty. Proliferation of all kinds must be halted and measures must be taken to meet adequately the security requirements of non-nuclear weapon states. Continuing absence of such assurances might have such consequences that may undermine the objectives and the provisions of the Treaty.

«Having included nuclear energy in its development plan as one of the sources of electricity production, Turkey is prepared as stipulated in Article IV of the Treaty, to cooperate further with the technologically advanced states, on a non-discriminatory basis, in the field of nuclear research and development as well as in nuclear energy production. Measures developed or to be developed at national and international levels to ensure the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons should in no case restrict the non-nuclear weapon states in their options for the application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.»

 

Ukraine

with declaration

«1. Положения Договора не охватывают в полной мере уникальной ситуации, которая сложилась вследствие распада ядерной державы — Союза ССР.

  1. Украина является собственником ядерного оружия, унаследованного ей от бывшего СССР после разукомплектования и уничтожения этого оружия под контролем Украины и в соответствии с процедурами, которые исключают возможность повторного использования ядерных материалов, которые являются компонентом этого оружия по первоначальному предназначению. Украина имеет намерение использовать вышеуказанные материалы исключительно в мирных целях.
  2. Наличие на территории Украины ядерного оружия до его полной ликвидации, а также соответственно работа по его содержанию, обслуживанию и уничтожению не противоречит положениям статей 1 и 2 Договора.
  3. Угроза силой или ее применения против территориальной целостности и неприкосновенности границ или политической независимости Украины со стороны какой-либо ядерной державы, также как и применение экономического давления, направленного на то, чтобы подчинить своей собственной интерпретации реализацию Украиной прав, присущих ее суверенитету будет рассматриваться Украиной, как исключительные обстоятельства, которые поставили под угрозу ее наивысшие интересы.
  4. Документы о присоединении Украины к Договору будут переданы государствам — депозитариям Договора после вступления в силу этого закона.
  5. Этот закон вступит в силу после предоставления Украине ядерными державами гарантий безопасности, оформленных путем подписания соответствующего международно-правового документа».

 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Statement communicated by Her Majesty’s Government on 3 July 1968, to all States recognised by the United Kingdom:

«The Government of the United Kingdom wish to recall their view that if a regime is not recognised as the Government of a State, neither signature nor the deposit of any instrument by it, nor notification of any of those acts will bring about recognition of that regime by any other State.»

Statement communicated by Her Majesty’s Government on ratification of the Treaty by the United Kingdom on 27 November 1968, to all States recognised by the United Kingdom:

«The provisions of the Treaty shall not apply in regard to Southern Rhodesia unless and until the Government of the United Kingdom informs the other depository Governments that it is in a position to ensure that the obligations imposed by the Treaty in respect of that territory can be fully implemented.»

OBJECTIONS

In a note to the German Democratic Republic dated 6 January 1976, the United Kingdom Government, following consultations with the Governments of the French Republic and the United States of America, stated on behalf of all three Governments:

«The German Democratic Republic is not a Party to the Quadripartite Agreement of 3 September 1971, concluded in Berlin by the Governments of the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, and is not therefore competent to comment authoritatively on its provisions.

The views of the three Governments on the substance of this matter are already set out in a Note dated 30 July 1975 circulated by the State Department of the United States to States which have, in Washington, signed or acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. A copy of that Note is enclosed herewith for information.»

Copy of State Department Note: «Following consultations between the Government of the United States of America and the Governments of France and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Acting Secretary of State wishes to state the following on behalf of all three Governments:

In a communication to the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is an integral part (Annex IV A) of the Quadripartite Agreement of September 3, 1971, the three powers confirmed that, provided matters of security and status are not affected and provided the extension is specified in each case, international agreements and arrangements entered into by the Federal Republic of Germany may be extended to the Western Sectors of Berlin in accordance with established procedures. For its part, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in a communication to the Governments of the three powers, which is similarly an integral part (Annex IV B) of the Quadripartite Agreement of September 3, 1971, affirmed that it would raise no objection to such extension.

The established procedures referred to above, which were endorsed in the Quadripartite Agreement, are designed, inter alia, to afford the authorities of the three powers the opportunity to ensure that the treaties concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany which are to be extended to the Western Sectors of Berlin are extended in such a way that matters of security and status are not affected. When authorizing the extension of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons to the Western Sectors of Berlin, the authorities of the three powers, acting in the exercise of their supreme authority, took the necessary steps to ensure in accordance with established procedures that this treaty is applied in the Western Sectors of Berlin only in such a way asnot to affect matters of security and status. Thus the extension of this treaty to the Western Sectors of Berlin is entirely consistent with the Quadripartite Agreement.»

In a Note to the Hungarian People’s Republic, following consultations with the Governments of the French Republic and the United States of America, the United Kingdom stated on behalf of the three Governments: «The Hungarian People’s Republic is not a Party to the Quadripartite Agreement of 3 September 1971, concluded in Berlin by the Governments of the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, and is not therefore competent to comment authoritatively on its provisions.

The views of the three Governments on the substance of this matter are already set out in a Note dated 30 July 1975 circulated by the State Department of the United States to states which have, in Washington, signed or acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.»

Statement by a Note dated 30 June 1976 concerning the statement made by the Italian Government on ratification:

«The Government of the United Kingdom, as a state party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, take the view that the obligations in Articles I and II of the Treaty apply without any distinction to all nuclear explosive devices. They are accordingly unable to agree with the interpretation of the Treaty, and of those Articles in particular, contained in paragraph 87 of the Note of the Italian Embassy.»

The instrument of ratification by the United Kingdom states that the Treaty is ratified in respect of «the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Associated States (Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla and Saint Lucia) and Territories under the territorial sovereignty of the United Kingdom, as well as the State of Brunei, the Kingdom of Tonga and the British Solomon Islands Protectorate».

The British Charg d’Affaires ad interim made the following declaration in a note to the Secretary of State dated November 27, 1968:

«Acting on instructions from Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs I hereby declare that the provisions of the Treaty shall not apply in regard to Southern Rhodesia unless and until the Government of the United Kingdom informs the other depository Governments that it is in a position to ensure that the obligations imposed by the Treaty in respect of that territory can be fully implemented.»

The Embassy of the Federal Republic of Cameroon informed the Department of State by a note dated April 24, 1969, that «The Government of the Federal Republic of Cameroon is unable to accept the reservation made by the Government of the United Kingdom… regarding its dependent territory of Southern Rhodesia. It is… the position of the Government of the Federal Republic of Cameroon that the Government of the United Kingdom, being the lawful Government of Rhodesia, remains responsible for the implementation of the obligations imposed by this Treaty as well as other International Treaties and conventions until that territory is granted independence in accordance with the United Nations Resolution 2379 (XXIII).»

By note dated June 11, 1997, the Ambassador of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland informed the Secretary of State as follows:

«I am instructed by Her Britannic Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs to refer to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons done at London/Moscow/Washington on 1 July 1968 (hereinafter referred to as the «Treaty») which applies to Hong Kong at present.

«I am also instructed to state that, in accordance with the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong signed on 19 December 1984, the Government of the United Kingdom will restore Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China with effect from 1 July 1997. The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to have international responsibility for Hong Kong until that date. Therefore, from that date the Government of the United Kingdom will cease to be responsible for the international rights and obligations arising from application of the Treaty to Hong Kong.

«I should be grateful if the contents of this Note could be placed formally on record and brought to the attention of the other Parties to the Treaty.

«I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency the assurances of my highest consideration.»

With declaration

«Положения этого Договора не будут применяться в отношении Южной Родезии до тех пор, пока Правительство Соединенного Королевства не сообщит другим правительствам-депозитариям, что оно в состоянии обеспечить положение, при котором обязательства, налагаемые Договором в отношении этой территории, могут быть полностью осуществлены».

«With a declaration that the provisions of the Treaty shall not apply in regard to Southern Rhodesia unless and until the Government of the United Kingdom informs the other depositary Governments that it is in a position to ensure that the obligations imposed by the Treaty in respect of that territory can be fully implemented».

 

United Republic of Tanzania

with declaration

 

Viet Nam

with declaration

«Социалистическая Республика Вьетнам приветствует и выражает уважение ко всем эффективным международным мерам, направленным на постепенное устранение опасности ядерной войны, и прежде всего к мерам, гарантирующим безопасность государств, не обладающих ядерным оружием, от агрессии или угрозы агрессии с использованием ядерного оружия.

Социалистическая Республика Вьетнам считает, что в соответствии с целями и принципами, изложенными в преамбуле Договора, а также в Уставе Организации Объединенных Наций, все государства пользуются равными правами в развитии исследования, производства и использования ядерной энергии в мирных целях, как и в осуществлении своего законного права на самооборону».

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