Статус Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия [рус., англ.] Часть 5

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Заявление при ратификации:

«1. Правительство Индонезии приняло решение сдать сегодня на хранение ратификационную грамоту к Договору о нераспространении ядерного оружия. При подписании Договора от 2 марта 1970 г. Правительство Индонезии заявило о том, что ратифицирует данный договор только после того, как будут учтены должным образом все аспекты национальной безопасности военного, экономического и социального характера.

В настоящее время Индонезия активно осуществляет свое национальное развитие. Исходя из поддержания и ускорения процесса развития, включая экономическое и социальное развитие, Индонезия изначально решила использовать ядерную энергию для мирных целей. Усилия Индонезии по использованию ядерной энергии для мирных целей в своем национальном развитии требуют помощи и содействия технически развитых ядерных государств. Ратифицируя данный Договор, Правительство Индонезии желает обратить внимание ядерных государств на возложенные на них обязательства, содержащиеся в ст. 4 Договора, и выражает надежду на то, что они готовы сотрудничать с неядерными государствами по вопросу использования ядерной энергии в мирных целях и исполнять положения ст. 4 Договора на благо развивающихся стран на недискриминационной основе.

Если, с одной стороны, государства-участники Договора, не владеющие ядерным оружием, в соответствии со ст. 2 Договора обязаны не получать, не владеть или не производить ядерное оружие, Индонезия, с другой стороны, придерживается точки зрения, согласно которой государства, обладающие ядерным оружием, должны в равной мере соблюдать положения ст. 6 Договора, касающиеся прекращения гонки ядерного вооружения.

Сдавая на хранение настоящую ратификационную грамоту, Индонезия уверена в том, что став участницей данного Договора, она будет способствовать осуществлению усилий, предпринимаемых международным сообществом, по укреплению международного мира и безопасности».

Declaration on ratification:

  1. The Government of Indonesia has decided to deposit today the Instrument of Ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). In signing the Treaty on 2 March 1970 the Government of Indonesia stated that it would ratify the same only after all aspects of national security of military, economic and social natures have been duly considered.
  2. Indonesia today is actively carrying out its national development. With a view to supporting and accelerating the development process, including the economic and social development, Indonesia has decided from the outset to make use of the nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Indonesia’s efforts in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in its national development, require the assistance and cooperation of technologically advanced nuclear countries. With the ratification of this Treaty, the Government of Indonesia wishes to draw the attention of the nuclear countries to their obligations under Article IV of the Treaty and expresses the hope that they would be prepared to cooperate with non-nuclear countries in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and implement the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty for the benefit of developing countries without discrimination.
  3. If, on the one hand, States Parties to the Treaty which are not in possession of nuclear weapons have, under Article II of the Treaty, the obligation not to receive, possess or manufacture nuclear weapons, Indonesia holds, on the other hand, the view that nuclear weapons states should equally observe the provisions of Article VI of the Treaty relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race.
  4. By depositing this Instrument of Ratification Indonesia is confident that in becoming Party to the Treaty it would contribute to the efforts made by the international community in the strengthening of international peace and security.

with declaration

Заявление при подписании:

«Правительство Индонезии решило подписать Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия с уверенностью, что он будет служить важным шагом на пути эффективных действий по прекращению гонки ядерного вооружения и ядерного разоружения.

Вместе с неприсоединившимися странами Правительство Индонезии проводит последовательную политику по поддержанию всех усилий по достижению договора о всестороннем запрещении испытании ядерного оружия и направлению всех стремлений по пути использования ядерной энергии только в мирных целях. Индонезийское правительство уже является участником Договора о частичном запрещении ядерного оружия 1963 года, и оно всегда, поддерживало проект предложений, направленных на ограничение распространения ядерного оружия.

Несомненно, что настоящий Договор может быть эффективен только в том случае, если все страны, как обладающие, так и не обладающие ядерным оружием, станут участниками этого Договора.

Индонезийское правительство обращает специальное внимание на ст. III, параграф 3, в котором говорится, что гарантии, требуемые Договором, будут осуществляться таким образом, чтобы избегать препятствий для экономического или технологического развития участников Договора или международного сотрудничества в области мирной ядерной деятельности.

Поэтому общей задачей всех участников этого Договора является принятие соответствующего соглашения о гарантиях, приемлемого для всех.

Индонезийское правительство будет и в дальнейшем придавать большое значение Декларации Соединенных Штатов Америки, Соединенного Королевства и Советского Союза, подтверждающей их намерение добиваться принятия Советом Безопасности действий с целью обеспечить или оказать немедленную помощь любому государству-участнику Договора, не обладающему ядерным оружием, который является жертвой акта агрессии или объектом угрозы агрессии, где может быть использовано ядерное оружие. Однако крайне важным является такое действие не после совершения ядерного нападения, а гарантии по предотвращению подобного нападения. Индонезийское правительство убеждено, что государства, обладающие ядерным оружием, будут изучать и дальше этот вопрос об эффективных мерах по обеспечению безопасности стран, не обладающих ядерным оружием.

Именно в этом свете индонезийское правительство считает необходимым также заявить, что его решение подписать Договор ни в какой мере не может рассматриваться как решение ратифицировать этот Договор. Вопрос о ратификации будет рассмотрен после того, как проблемы национальной безопасности, которые глубоко волнуют правительство и народ Индонезии, будут выяснены к их удовлетворению».

Заявление при ратификации:

«1. Правительство Индонезии приняло решение сдать сегодня на хранение ратификационную грамоту к Договору о нераспространении ядерного оружия. При подписании Договора от 2 марта 1970 г. Правительство Индонезии заявило о том, что ратифицирует данный договор только после того, как будут учтены должным образом все аспекты национальной безопасности военного, экономического и социального характера.

В настоящее время Индонезия активно осуществляет свое национальное развитие. Исходя из поддержания и ускорения процесса развития, включая экономическое и социальное развитие, Индонезия изначально решила использовать ядерную энергию для мирных целей. Усилия Индонезии по использованию ядерной энергии для мирных целей в своем национальном развитии требуют помощи и содействия технически развитых ядерных государств. Ратифицируя данный Договор, Правительство Индонезии желает обратить внимание ядерных государств на возложенные на них обязательства, содержащиеся в ст. 4 Договора, и выражает надежду на то, что они готовы сотрудничать с неядерными государствами по вопросу использования ядерной энергии в мирных целях и исполнять положения ст. 4 Договора на благо развивающихся стран на недискриминационной основе.

Если, с одной стороны, государства-участники Договора, не владеющие ядерным оружием, в соответствии со ст. 2 Договора обязаны не получать, не владеть или не производить ядерное оружие, Индонезия, с другой стороны, придерживается точки зрения, согласно которой государства, обладающие ядерным оружием, должны в равной мере соблюдать положения ст. 6 Договора, касающиеся прекращения гонки ядерного вооружения.

Сдавая на хранение настоящую ратификационную грамоту, Индонезия уверена в том, что став участницей данного Договора, она будет способствовать осуществлению усилий, предпринимаемых международным сообществом, по укреплению международного мира и безопасности».

A statement was issued by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on the date of its signature of the Treaty, the text of which reads as follows:

«The Government of Indonesia has decided to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in the conviction that it will serve as an important step towards effective measures on the cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament.

«Together with the non-aligned countries, it is the consistent policy of the Government of Indonesia to support all efforts to achieve a comprehensive test-ban treaty and to direct all endeavours towards the exclusive peaceful applications of nuclear energy. The Indonesian Government is already party to the partial test-ban Treaty of 1963 and it has always supported draft proposals designed to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.

«There is no doubt that the present Treaty could be effective only if all countries, nuclear weapon as well as non nuclear weapon states could become party to this Treaty.

«The Indonesian Government takes special note of Article III paragraph 3, stating that the safeguards required by the Treaty shall be implemented in such a manner so as to avoid hampering the economic or technological development of the parties or international cooperation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities. It is, therefore, the common task of all parties to this Treaty to make the relevant safeguards agreements acceptable to all.

«The Government of Indonesia further attaches great importance to the declarations of the U.S.A., the U.K. and the Soviet Union, affirming their intention to render immediate assistance to any non-nuclear weapon state, party to the Treaty, that is a victim of an act of aggression, in which nuclear weapons are used. Of utmost importance, however, is not the action after a nuclear attack has been committed, but the guarantees to prevent such an attack. The Indonesian Government trusts that the nuclear weapon states will study further this question of effective measures to ensure the security of the non-nuclear weapon states.

«It is in this context that the Indonesian Government feels obliged to state further that its decision to sign the Treaty is not to be taken in any way as a decision to ratify the Treaty. Its ratification will be considered after matters of national security, which are of deep concern to the Government and people of Indonesia, have been clarified to their satisfaction.»

The instrument of ratification of the Treaty by Indonesia was accompanied by a declaration, the text of which reads as follows:

«1. The Government of Indonesia has decided to deposit today the Instrument of Ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). In signing the Treaty on 2 March 1970 the Government of Indonesia stated that it would ratify the same only after all aspects of national security of military, economic and social natures have been duly considered.

«2. Indonesia today is actively carrying out its national development. With a view to supporting and accelerating the development process, including the economic and social development, Indonesia has decided from the outset to make use of the nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Indonesia’s efforts in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in its national development, require the assistance and cooperation of technologically advanced nuclear countries. With the ratification of this Treaty, the Government of Indonesia wishes to draw the attention of the nuclear countries to their obligations under Article IV of the Treaty and expresses the hope that they would be prepared to cooperate with non-nuclear countries in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and implement the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty for the benefit of developing countries without discrimination.

«3. If, on the one hand, States Parties to the Treaty which are not in possession of nuclear weapons, have, under Article II of the Treaty, the obligation not to receive, possess or manufacture nuclear weapons, Indonesia holds, on the other hand, the view that nuclear weapons states should equally observe the provisions of Article VI of the Treaty relating to the cessation of nuclear arms race.

«4. By depositing this Instrument of Ratification Indonesia is confident that in becoming Party to the Treaty it would contribute to the efforts made by the international community in the strengthening of international peace and security.»

 

Italy

(Translation):

The Italian Government, in signing the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, wish to confirm the statements made on the Treaty in various international fora and approved by the Italian Parliament in the debate that took place during the second half of July and at the end of August, 1968. On the basis of the above mentioned statements the Italian Government:

1 — reaffirm their firm belief that the Treaty — for which the Italian Government have made for years all possible efforts with a view to its early conclusion — is a milestone on the road to disarmament, international detente and peace, and represents a fundamental contribution for the establishment of a new international society based on security of peoples and on the progress of humanity;

2 — stress their persuasion that the principles set forth in the clauses of the Preamble to the Treaty on the engagement of signatories, in accordance with the UN Charter, to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or the political independence of any State, are an intransgressible presupposition of the Treaty itself, and that a scrupulous and general respect for such principles constitutes a supreme interest for all;

3 — consider the Treaty not as a point of arrival, but only as a point of departure towards negotiations on disarmament, on peaceful use of nuclear energy and on benefits deriving from the peaceful use of nuclear energy which the Treaty itself takes into consideration for its natural completion and for its effective execution;

4 — sign the Treaty in the firm belief that nothing in it is an obstacle to the unification of the Countries of Western Europe and to the justified expectations that the peoples of this area have in the developments and progress towards unity with a view to the creation of a European entity;

5 — are convinced that the purposes of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons are consistent with the provisions of the Treaty of Rome on EURATOM;

6 — note the full compatibility of the Treaty with the existing security agreements;

7 — note that the needs of freedom of scientific and technological research — that cannot be derogated from — are in no way hindered by the Treaty;

8 — note that the prohibitions in Articles I and II of the Treaty — also in the general spirit of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation — refer only to nuclear explosive devices that cannot be differentiated from nuclear weapons; and consequently that when technological progress will allow the development of peaceful explosive devices differentiated from nuclear weapons, the prohibition relating to their manufacture and use shall no longer apply;

9 — with reference to the provisions of Article III, paragraph 4, of the Treaty, express the hope that the agreements in the matter of controls foreseen in it will be reached between the IAEA and EURATOM on the basis of the concept of verification. Pending the conclusion of the Agreement between IAEA and EURATOM, the understandings reached on the matter of supplies between EURATOM and the Governments which have signed the Treaty will remain in force;

10 — note that in the letter and in the spirit of the Treaty the controls provided for in Article III of the Treaty are applicable only to source and special fissionable material. Consider that the words «source» and «special fissionable material» used in the Treaty should be understood — unless modifications are expressly accepted by Italy — in the meaning defined in the present text of Article XX of the Statute of IAEA;

11 — interpret the provisions of Article IX, paragraph 3, of the Treaty relating to the definition of a nuclear weapon State, in the sense that it refers only to the five Countries that have manufactured or exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before 1st January, 1967. Any claim to belong to this category, and for any title, shall not be recognized by the Italian Government to other States, whether or not they have signed the Treaty;

12 — state here and now that the signature and ratification of the Treaty by the Government of a Union of States covers the signature and ratification that might be carried out by the Governments of States members of the said Union: the Italian Government therefore would not recognize legal effects to the latter signature and ratification. To integrate the above mentioned statements the Italian Government attach to the present Note the texts of the ordini del giorni on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, approved by the Italian Senate and the Italian Chamber of Deputies on the 19th and 26th July, 1968.

Agenda approved by the Senate of the [Italian] Republic on 19 July, 1968

«The Senate, having heard the Government’s statements on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; conscious of the threat which nuclear weapons constitute mankind; convinced that without universal nuclear disarmament there is no certainty that mankind will be spared the horrors of a nuclear war; trusts that all the nuclear-weapon Powers will agree to the general and effective discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests and of the production of new nuclear weapons and the progressive destruction of existing stockpiles at an early date; considers that the implementation of disarmament by means of the destruction of existing stockpiles should be followed by the limitation of conventional weapons under strict control so as to make it impossible to resort to war as a means of settling disputes between States; lends its own support to the Government’s decision to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty and directs it to act in such a manner that the obligations assumed by the nuclear-weapon Powers in respect of nuclear disarmament may be implemented as soon as possible as the first step towards general and complete disarmament; likewise directs the Government to ensure that the implementation of the Treaty secures the balance between responsibilities and obligations for the nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon Powers envisaged in the UN resolution, so that the non-nuclear-weapon Powers are assured of the right to fair supplies of source and special fissionable materials, of the right to unrestricted scientific and technical information and in general of effective equality between States in the sphere of the application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes Having considered Italy’s obligations under the Treaty of Rome and the value of the policy of European unification, calls upon the Government to act in agreement with the other members of the European Communities in such a way that the existence and development of the European Communities may be safeguarded during the implementation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.»

Agenda approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 26 July, 1968

«The Chamber, having heard the Government’s statements on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; convinced that any approach to general disarmament and nuclear disarmament in particular can be of use for the maintenance of peace in the world; considering that adherence to the Treaty by a large number of non-nuclear-weapon States may lead to appropriate negotiations for the cessation of the nuclear arms race and for nuclear disarmament; authorizes the Government to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Directs the Government itself to ensure that:

1) the obligations assumed by the nuclear-weapon Powers in respect of nuclear disarmament are swiftly implemented;

2) the non-nuclear-weapon Powers are assured of supplies, on non-discriminatory conditions, of source and special fissionable materials for peace purposes, within the meaning laid down by the Statute of the IAEA, and also the right to unrestricted scientific and technical information;

3) it avails itself of the right of initiative provided for in Article VIII of the Treaty in order that all the States acceding thereto may achieve effective equality in participation in the control and peaceful development of nuclear energy;

4) all such initiatives are taken as are most suitable for the attainment of these objectives on the occasion, too, of the conference of non-nuclear-weapon States which will open under the auspices of the United Nations at Geneva in August 1968. Such assurances may well be obtained by means of additional agreements and explanatory declarations signed by as many countries as possible; and calls upon the Government to act in agreement with the other Member-States of the European Communities to ensure that, when the Treaty is implemented, the existence and development of the European Communities is safeguarded, the possibility of collective control over nuclear weapons is guarantied and an agreement concerning safeguards is concluded between EURATOM and the IAEA.»

The above statement was confirmed on ratification on 2 May, 1975.

«Итальянское правительство, подписывая Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия, желает повторить заявления, сделанные им в отношении Договора в различных международных организациях и одобренные парламентом Республики в ходе дебатов, состоявшихся во второй половине июля и в начале августа прошлого года.

На основе этих заявлений Итальянское правительство:

1) вновь подтверждает свою глубокую убежденность в том, что Договор, скорейшему заключению которого оно всячески стремилось содействовать в течение ряда лет, является вехой на пути разоружения, разрядки международной напряженности и мира и представляет собой существенный вклад в создание нового международного сообщества, основанного на безопасности народов и прогрессе человечества;

2) подчеркивает собственную уверенность в том, что принципы, вытекающие из положений преамбулы Договора и касающиеся обязательства государств-участников в соответствии с Уставом ООН воздерживаться в своих международных отношениях от угрозы силой или ее применения против территориальной неприкосновенности или политической независимости любого государства, являются неотъемлемой частью договора и их тщательное и полное соблюдение в высшей степени соответствует интересам всех государств;

3) рассматривает Договор не как конечный пункт, а как отправную точку на пути к переговорам по разоружению, мирному использованию ядерной энергии и предоставлению благ, вытекающих из мирного применения ядерной энергии, которые должны явиться естественный развитием Договора и содействовать его эффективному выполнению;

4) подписывает Договор, будучи убежденным в том, что ничто в нем не препятствует объединению стран Западной Европы и осуществлению надежд, которые народы этого района связывают с развитием объединительного процесса, имеющего своей целью создание европейского сообщества;

5) убеждено, что цели Договора о нераспространении совместимы с нормами Римского Договора о Евратоме;

6) учитывает полную совместимость Договора с существующими обязательствами по вопросам безопасности;

7) принимает во внимание, что Договор ни в коей мере не ограничивает необходимость полной свободы в проведении научно-технических исследований.

8) констатирует, что запрещения, накладываемые статьями I и II Договора и соответствующие общему духу Договора, касаются только ядерных взрывных устройств, не отличающихся от ядерного оружия; и поэтому, когда технологический прогресс сделает возможным появление ядерных взрывных устройств для мирных целей, которые будут отличны от ядерного оружия, то запрещение не будет распространяться на их производство и использование;

9) в связи с положениями пункта 4 статьи III Договора ожидает, что предусматриваемые в нем соглашения по вопросам контроля будут заключены между МАГАТЭ и Евратомом на основе концепции проверки. В период до заключения соглашения между Евратомом и МАГАТЭ существующие соглашения относительно поставок между Евратомом и правительствами стран, подписавших Договор, останутся в силе;

10) принимает к сведению, что в соответствии с буквой и духом Договора контроль, о котором речь идет в статье III Договора, будет применяться только в отношении исходного и специального расщепляющегося материала. Полагает, что слова «исходный материал» и «специальный расщепляющийся материал», употребляемые в Договоре, следует понимать — за исключением изменений, безусловно принятых Италией — так, как они определены в нынешнем тексте статьи XX Статута МАГАТЭ;

11) истолковывает положение пункта 3 статьи IX Договора, касающееся определения государства, обладающего ядерным оружием, в том плане, что речь идет исключительно о пяти странах, которые произвели или взрывали ядерное оружие или другое ядерное взрывное устройство до I января 1967 года. Никакие претензии на принадлежность к этой или подобной категории не будут признаваться Итальянским правительством за другими государствами, как присоединившимися, так и неприсоединившимися к Договору;

12) заявляет уже сейчас, что подписание и ратификация Договора правительством союза государств заменит в конечном итоге подписание и ратификацию его со стороны правительств государств-членов этого союза: итальянское правительство не будет признавать как имеющие юридическую силу, подписание и ратификацию Договора последними».

with declaration

 

Japan

(Translation)

The Government of Japan, believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would increase the danger of nuclear war, has always been in favour of the spirit underlying this Treaty, since the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons is in accord with its policy with regard to the maintenance of world peace. The Government of Japan is signing this Treaty on the basis of its fundamental position which is stated below.

The Government of Japan is convinced that this Treaty will serve as a first step towards nuclear disarmament and hopes that as many States as possible will adhere to this Treaty to make it effective. The Government of Japan hopes, especially, that the Governments of the Republic of France and the People’s Republic of China which possess nuclear weapons but have yet to express their intention of adhering to this Treaty will become parties thereto at an early date and pursue negotiations in good faith on nuclear disarmament and that they will refrain, even before that, from taking such actions as are contrary to the purposes of this Treaty. This Treaty permits only the present nuclear-weapon States to possess nuclear weapons. This discrimination should ultimately be made to disappear through the elimination of nuclear weapons by all the nuclear-weapon States from their national arsenals. Until such time the nuclear-weapon States should be conscious of the fact that they have special responsibilities as a consequence of this special status.

The prohibition under this Treaty applies solely to the acquisition of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices and of control over them. Therefore this Treaty must in no way restrict non-nuclear-weapon States in their research, development or implementation of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, or in their international cooperation in these fields, nor must it subject them to discriminatory treatment in any aspect of such activities. The Government of Japan wishes to state that it has a deep interest in the following matters in the light of its basic position stated above.

This Government stresses that it will also concern itself most vigourously with these matters when it decides to ratify the Treaty as well as when it participates in the review of its operation in the future as a party to the Treaty.

  1. Disarmament and Security
  2. Under Article VI of the Treaty each State Party «undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control». The Government of Japan believe it essential for the attainment of the purposes of this Treaty that, above all, the nuclear-weapon States should take concrete nuclear disarmament measures in pursuance of this undertaking. As a member of the Committee on Disarmament, Japan is also prepared to cooperate in the furtherance of disarmament.
  3. The Government of Japan deems it important that in the preamble to the Treaty there is a provision stating that «in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations». It also wishes to emphasise that the nuclear-weapon States must not have recourse to the use of nuclear weapons or threaten to use such weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States.
  4. The Government of Japan also attaches great importance to the declarations of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union affirming their intention to seek immediate Security Council action to provide assistance, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, to any non-nuclear-weapon State, party to the Treaty, that is a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used, and hopes that the nuclear-weapon States will continue their studies with regard to effective measures to ensure the security of non-nuclear-weapon States.
  5. The Government of Japan, pending its ratification of this Treaty, will pay particular attention to developments in disarmament negotiations and will progress in the implementation of the Security Council Resolution on the security of non-nuclear-weapon States and continue to make a close study of other problems which require consideration for the safeguarding of her national interests.
  6. The Government of Japan takes note of the fact that Article X of the Treaty provides that: «each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardised the supremeinterest of its country.»
  7. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
  8. The safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with Article III of the Treaty must not be such as would subject her to disadvantageous treatment as compared with the safeguards agreements which other States Parties conclude with the same Agency, either individually or together with other States. The Government of Japan intends to give full consideration to this matter before taking steps to ratify the Treaty.
  9. The Government of Japan greatly appreciates, as a measure supplementing this Treaty, the declarations of the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom, which are both nuclear-weapon States, that they will accept the application of safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency to all their nuclear activities, excluding only those directly related to their national security, and earnestly hopes that these assurances will be faithfully implemented. It also hopes most earnestly that the other nuclear-weapon States will take similar action.
  10. Safeguards should be subject to the principle that they should be applied at certain strategic points of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the procedure for their application must be rational when considered from the point of view of cost-effectiveness and made as simple as possible by making the maximum use of material control systems of the respective countries. Furthermore, adequate measures must be taken to ensure that the application of safeguards does not cause the leakage of industrial secrets or otherwise hinder industrial activities. The Government of Japan hopes that the International Atomic Energy Agency will make constant efforts to improve safeguards in the light of technological developments with the above aims in mind. This Government is prepared to cooperate in such efforts and hopes that the States concerned will also cooperate to achieve this end.
  11. The Government of Japan understands that no unfair burden in connection with the cost of applying safeguards will be imposed on the non-nuclear-weapon States to which such safeguards are to be applied.
  12. The Government of Japan considers that, when safeguards are applied in accordance with the safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency under Article III of this Treaty, steps should be taken to arrange that such safeguards supersede the existing safeguards which are being applied in connection with Japan’s cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
  13. Concrete measures should be taken to promote the implementation of the provisions of Articles IV and V of the Treaty relating to International Cooperation for the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and for the Peaceful Application of Nuclear Explosions. In particular, no peaceful nuclear activities in non-nuclear-weapon States shall be prohibited or restricted, nor shall the transfer of information, nuclear materials, equipment or other material relating to the peaceful use of nuclear energy be denied to non-nuclear States, merely on the grounds that such activities or transfers could be used also for the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

At the time of signature the Ambassador of Japan presented the Secretary of State the statement issued by the Government of Japan on the occasion of the signing of the Treaty. The text of the statement reads as follows:

«The Government of Japan, believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would increase the danger of nuclear war, has always been in favour of the spirit underlying this Treaty, since the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons is in accord with its policy with regard to the maintenance of world peace.

«The Government of Japan is signing this Treaty on the basis of its fundamental position which is stated below.

«The Government of Japan is convinced that this Treaty will serve as a first step towards nuclear disarmament and hopes that as many states as possible will adhere to this Treaty to make it effective. The Government of Japan hopes, especially, that the Governments of the Republic of France and the People’s Republic of China which possess nuclear weapons but have yet to express their intention of adhering to this Treaty will become parties thereto at an early date and pursue negotiations in good faith on nuclear disarmament and that they will refrain, even before that, from taking such actions as are contrary to the purposes of this Treaty.

«This Treaty permits only the present nuclear-weapon states to possess nuclear weapons. This discrimination should ultimately be made to disappear through the elimination of nuclear weapons by all the nuclear-weapon states from their national arsenals. Until such time the nuclear-weapon states should be conscious of the fact that they have special responsibilities as a consequence of this special status.

«The prohibition under this Treaty applies solely to the acquisition of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices and of control over them. Therefore, this Treaty must in no way restrict non-nuclear-weapon states in their research, development, or implementation of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, or in their international cooperation in these fields, nor must it subject them to discriminatory treatment in any aspect of such activities.

«The Government of Japan wishes to state that it has a deep interest in the following matters in the light of its basic position stated above.

«This government stresses that it will also concern itself most vigorously with these matters when it decides to ratify the Treaty as well as when it participates in the review of its operation in the future as a party to the Treaty.

«I. Disarmament and Security

  1. Under Article VI of the Treaty each state party «undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.» The Government of Japan believes it essential for the attainment of the purposes of this Treaty that, above all, the nuclear-weapon states should take concrete nuclear disarmament measures in pursuance of this undertaking. As a member of the Committee on disarmament, Japan is also prepared to cooperate in the furtherance of disarmament.
  2. The Government of Japan deems it important that in the preamble to the Treaty there is a provision stating that «in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, states must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.» It also wishes to emphasize that the nuclear-weapon states must not have recourse to the use of nuclear weapons or threaten to use such weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states.
  3. The Government of Japan also attaches great importance to the declarations of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union affirming their intention to seek immediate Security Council action to provide assistance, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, to any non-nuclear-weapon state, party to the Treaty, that is a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used, and hopes that the nuclear-weapon states will continue their studies with regard to effective measures to ensure the security of non-nuclear-weapon states.
  4. The Government of Japan, pending its ratification of this Treaty, will pay particular attention to developments in disarmament negotiations and progress in the implementation of the Security Council resolution on the security of non-nuclear-weapon states and continue to make a close study of other problems which require consideration for the safeguarding of her national interests.
  5. The Government of Japan takes note of the fact that Article X of the Treaty provides that: «each party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country.»

«II. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

  1. The safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with Article III of the Treaty must not be such as would subject her to disadvantageous treatment as compared with the safeguards agreement which other states parties conclude with the same agency, either individually or together with other states. The Government of Japan intends to give full consideration to this matter before taking steps to ratify the Treaty.
  2. The Government of Japan greatly appreciates, as a measure supplementing this Treaty, the declarations of the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom, which are both nuclear-weapon states, that they will accept the application of safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency to all their nuclear activities, excluding only those directly related to their national security, and earnestly hopes that these assurances will be faithfully implemented. It also hopes most earnestly that the other nuclear-weapon states will take similar action.
  3. Safeguards should be subject to the principle that they should be applied at certain strategic points of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the procedure for their application must be rational when considered from the point of view of cost-effectiveness and made as simple as possible by making the maximum use of material control systems of the respective countries. Furthermore, adequate measures must be taken to ensure that the application of safeguards does not cause the leakage of industrial secrets or otherwise hinder industrial activities. The Government of Japan hopes that the International Atomic Energy Agency will make constant efforts to improve safeguards in the light of technological developments with the above aims in mind. This government is prepared to cooperate in such efforts and hopes that the states concerned will also cooperate to achieve this end.
  4. The Government of Japan understands that no unfair burden in connection with the cost of applying safeguards will be imposed on the non-nuclear-weapon states to which such safeguards are to be applied.
  5. The Government of Japan considers that, when safeguards are applied in accordance with the safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency under Article III of this Treaty, steps should be taken to arrange that such safeguards supersede the existing safeguards which are being applied in connection with Japan’s cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
  6. Concrete measures should be taken to promote the implementation of the provisions of Articles IV and V of the Treaty relating to international cooperation for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and for the peaceful application of nuclear explosions. In particular, no peaceful nuclear activities in non-nuclear-weapon states shall be prohibited or restricted, nor shall the transfer of information, nuclear materials, equipment, or other material relating to the peaceful use of nuclear energy be denied to non-nuclear-weapon states, merely on the grounds that such activities or transfers could be used also for the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.»

STATEMENT on ratification:

Today the Government of Japan is depositing its Instruments of Ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons with the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, and Japan becomes a party to this Treaty. Japan, as the only nation to have suffered atomic bombing, has consistently followed a fundamental policy of forsaking nuclear armament and has steadfastly pursued the foreign policy of a nation committed to peace under its peace constitution. On the occasion of the depositing of its Instruments of Ratification of this Treaty, the Government of Japan declares anew to the world this fundamental policy. It firmly believes that Japan’s adherence to this Treaty will contribute to stability in international relations and, in particular, to peace and stability in Asia. Japan, as a party to this Treaty, is determined hereafter to intensify its efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and to contribute to international cooperation with respect to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

This Treaty permits only the «nuclear-weapon States» to possess nuclear weapons and allows them a special status. The Government of Japan holds the belief that the nuclear-weapon states must rectify this discrimination in the future by totally abolishing their nuclear weapons. To achieve this end, the Government of Japan is determined to make special efforts for the furthering of nuclear disarmament. On the basis of these fundamental considerations, the Government of Japan stresses especially the following points:

  1. The Government of Japan hopes that as many states as possible, whether possessing a nuclear explosive capability or not, will become parties to this Treaty in order to make it truly effective. In particular, it strongly hopes that the Republic of France and the People’s Republic of China, which possess nuclear weapons but are not parties to the Treaty, will accede thereto.
  2. The Government of Japan urges the nuclear-weapon states, which have special responsibilities for nuclear disarmament, to take concrete nuclear disarmament measures such as the reduction of nuclear arms and the realization of a comprehensive nuclear test ban, in accordance with Article VI of this Treaty. It urges the nuclear-weapon states not party to this Treaty also to take nuclear disarmament measures.
  3. The Government of Japan takes particular note of the Declarations in June 1968 of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States concerning the security of non-nuclear-weapon-states, as well as of Security Council Resolution 255 (1968), and hopes that the nuclear-weapon states will make further efforts towards effective measures for the security of non-nuclear-weapon states. It further urges all states, both nuclear-weapon-states and non-nuclear-weapon states, to refrain, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, from the threat or use of force in their international relations involving either nuclear or non-nuclear weapons.
  4. The Government of Japan is convinced that, for the well-being of all mankind, international cooperation with respect to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the peaceful applications of nuclear explosions should be vigourously promoted in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty. It considers that peaceful nuclear activities in non-nuclear-weapon states party to the Treaty should in no way be hampered by this Treaty and also that Japan should not be discriminated against in favour of other states party to the Treaty in any aspect of such activities.
  5. The Government of Japan appreciates the Declarations of the United Kingdom and the United States, both nuclear-weapon states, that they will accept the application of safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency to their peaceful nuclear activities. It urges the other nuclear-weapon states to take similar action.
  6. The Government of Japan hopes that Review Conferences, as provided for in this Treaty, will continue to be held at regular intervals in order to ensure the appropriate operation of this Treaty.

with declaration

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