О стимулировании использования энергии из возобновляемых источников, внесении изменений и дальнейшей отмене Директив 2001/77/ЕС и 2003/30/ЕС» [рус., англ.] Часть 15

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  1. Methodology
  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of transport fuels, biofuels and bioliquids shall be calculated as:

E = eec + el + ep + etd + eu — esca — eccs — eccr — eee,

where

E = total emissions from the use of the fuel;
eec = emissions from the extraction or cultivation of raw materials;
el = annualised emissions from carbon stock changes caused by land-use change;
ep = emissions from processing;
etd = emissions from transport and distribution;
eu = emissions from the fuel in use;
esca = emission saving from soil carbon accumulation via improved agricultural management;
eccs = emission saving from carbon capture and geological storage;
eccr = emission saving from carbon capture and replacement; and
eee = emission saving from excess electricity from cogeneration.

Emissions from the manufacture of machinery and equipment shall not be taken into account.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuels, E, shall be expressed in terms of grams of CO2 equivalent per MJ of fuel, gCO2eq/MJ.
  2. By derogation from point 2, for transport fuels, values calculated in terms of gCO2eq/MJ may be adjusted to take into account differences between fuels in useful work done, expressed in terms of km/MJ. Such adjustments shall be made only where evidence of the differences in useful work done is provided.
  3. Greenhouse gas emission saving from biofuels and bioliquids shall be calculated as:

SAVING = (EF — EB) / EF,

where

EB = total emissions from the biofuel or bioliquid; and

EF = total emissions from the fossil fuel comparator.

  1. The greenhouse gases taken into account for the purposes of point 1 shall be CO2, N2O and CH4. For the purpose of calculating CO2 equivalence, those gases shall be valued as follows:

CO2: 1

N2O: 296

CH4: 23

  1. Emissions from the extraction or cultivation of raw materials, eec, shall include emissions from the extraction or cultivation process itself; from the collection of raw materials; from waste and leakages; and from the production of chemicals or products used in extraction or cultivation. Capture of CO2 in the cultivation of raw materials shall be excluded. Certified reductions of greenhouse gas emissions from flaring at oil production sites anywhere in the world shall be deducted. Estimates of emissions from cultivation may be derived from the use of averages calculated for smaller geographical areas than those used in the calculation of the default values, as an alternative to using actual values.
  2. Annualised emissions from carbon stock changes caused by land-use change, el, shall be calculated by dividing total emissions equally over 20 years. For the calculation of those emissions, the following rule shall be applied:

el = (CSR — CSA) x 3,664 x 1/20 x 1/P — eB, <*>

———————————

<*> The quotient obtained by dividing the molecular weight of CO2 (44,010 g/mol) by the molecular weight of carbon (12,011 g/mol) is equal to 3,664.

where

el = annualised greenhouse gas emissions from carbon stock change due to land-use change (measured as mass (grams) of CO2-equivalent per unit of biofuel or bioliquid energy (megajoules)). «Cropland» <*> and «perennial cropland» <**> shall be regarded as one land use;

———————————

<*> Cropland as defined by IPCC.

<**> Perennial crops are defined as multi-annual crops, the stem of which is usually not annually harvested such as short rotation coppice and oil palm.

CSR = the carbon stock per unit area associated with the reference land-use (measured as mass (tonnes) of carbon per unit area, including both soil and vegetation). The reference land-use shall be the land-use in January 2008 or 20 years before the raw material was obtained, whichever was the later;
CSA = the carbon stock per unit area associated with the actual land-use (measured as mass (tonnes) of carbon per unit area, including both soil and vegetation). In cases where the carbon stock accumulates over more than one year, the value attributed to CSA shall be the estimated stock per unit area after 20 years or when the crop reaches maturity, whichever the earlier;
P = the productivity of the crop (measured as biofuel or bioliquid energy per unit area per year) and
eB = bonus of 29 gCO2eq/MJ biofuel or bioliquid if biomass is obtained from restored degraded land under the conditions provided for in point 8.
  1. The bonus of 29 gCO2eq/MJ shall be attributed if evidence is provided that the land:

(a) was not in use for agriculture or any other activity in January 2008; and

(b) falls into one of the following categories:

(i) severely degraded land, including such land that was formerly in agricultural use;

(ii) heavily contaminated land.

The bonus of 29 gCO2eq/MJ shall apply for a period of up to 10 years from the date of conversion of the land to agricultural use, provided that a steady increase in carbon stocks as well as a sizable reduction in erosion phenomena for land falling under (i) are ensured and that soil contamination for land falling under (ii) is reduced.

  1. The categories referred to in point 8(b) are defined as follows:

(a) «severely degraded land» means land that, for a significant period of time, has either been significantly salinated or presented significantly low organic matter content and has been severely eroded;

(b) «heavily contaminated land» means land that is unfit for the cultivation of food and feed due to soil contamination.

Such land shall include land that has been the subject of a Commission decision in accordance with the fourth subparagraph of Article 18(4).

  1. The Commission shall adopt, by 31 December 2009, guidelines for the calculation of land carbon stocks drawing on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories — volume 4. The Commission guidelines shall serve as the basis for the calculation of land carbon stocks for the purposes of this Directive.
  2. Emissions from processing, ep, shall include emissions from the processing itself; from waste and leakages; and from the production of chemicals or products used in processing.

In accounting for the consumption of electricity not produced within the fuel production plant, the greenhouse gas emission intensity of the production and distribution of that electricity shall be assumed to be equal to the average emission intensity of the production and distribution of electricity in a defined region. By derogation from this rule, producers may use an average value for an individual electricity production plant for electricity produced by that plant, if that plant is not connected to the electricity grid.

  1. Emissions from transport and distribution, etd, shall include emissions from the transport and storage of raw and semi-finished materials and from the storage and distribution of finished materials. Emissions from transport and distribution to be taken into account under point 6 shall not be covered by this point.
  2. Emissions from the fuel in use, eu, shall be taken to be zero for biofuels and bioliquids.
  3. Emission saving from carbon capture and geological storage eccs, that have not already been accounted for in ep, shall be limited to emissions avoided through the capture and sequestration of emitted CO2 directly related to the extraction, transport, processing and distribution of fuel.
  4. Emission saving from carbon capture and replacement, eccr, shall be limited to emissions avoided through the capture of CO2 of which the carbon originates from biomass and which is used to replace fossil-derived CO2 used in commercial products and services.
  5. Emission saving from excess electricity from cogeneration, eee, shall be taken into account in relation to the excess electricity produced by fuel production systems that use cogeneration except where the fuel used for the cogeneration is a co-product other than an agricultural crop residue. In accounting for that excess electricity, the size of the cogeneration unit shall be assumed to be the minimum necessary for the cogeneration unit to supply the heat that is needed to produce the fuel. The greenhouse gas emission saving associated with that excess electricity shall be taken to be equal to the amount of greenhouse gas that would be emitted when an equal amount of electricity was generated in a power plant using the same fuel as the cogeneration unit.
  6. Where a fuel production process produces, in combination, the fuel for which emissions are being calculated and one or more other products (co-products), greenhouse gas emissions shall be divided between the fuel or its intermediate product and the co-products in proportion to their energy content (determined by lower heating value in the case of coproducts other than electricity).
  7. For the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 17, the emissions to be divided shall be eec + el + those fractions of ep, etd and eee that take place up to and including the process step at which a co-product is produced. If any allocation to co-products has taken place at an earlier process step in the life-cycle, the fraction of those emissions assigned in the last such process step to the intermediate fuel product shall be used for this purpose instead of the total of those emissions.

In the case of biofuels and bioliquids, all co-products, including electricity that does not fall under the scope of point 16, shall be taken into account for the purposes of that calculation, except for agricultural crop residues, including straw, bagasse, husks, cobs and nut shells. Co-products that have a negative energy content shall be considered to have an energy content of zero for the purpose of the calculation.

Wastes, agricultural crop residues, including straw, bagasse, husks, cobs and nut shells, and residues from processing, including crude glycerine (glycerine that is not refined), shall be considered to have zero life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions up to the process of collection of those materials.

In the case of fuels produced in refineries, the unit of analysis for the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 17 shall be the refinery.

  1. For biofuels, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 4, the fossil fuel comparator EF shall be the latest available actual average emissions from the fossil part of petrol and diesel consumed in the Community as reported under Directive 98/70/EC. If no such data are available, the value used shall be 83,8 gCO2eq/MJ.

For bioliquids used for electricity production, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 4, the fossil fuel comparator EF shall be 91 gCO2eq/MJ.

For bioliquids used for heat production, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 4, the fossil fuel comparator EF shall be 77 gCO2eq/MJ.

For bioliquids used for cogeneration, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in point 4, the fossil fuel comparator EF shall be 85 gCO2eq/MJ.

 

  1. Disaggregated default values for biofuels and bioliquids

 

Disaggregated default values for cultivation: «eec» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

sugar beet ethanol 12 12
wheat ethanol 23 23
corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced 20 20
sugar cane ethanol 14 14
the part from renewable sources of ETBE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
the part from renewable sources of TAEE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
rape seed biodiesel 29 29
sunflower biodiesel 18 18
soybean biodiesel 19 19
palm oil biodiesel 14 14
waste vegetable or animal <*> oil biodiesel 0 0
hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed 30 30
hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower 18 18
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil 15 15
pure vegetable oil from rape seed 30 30
biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas 0 0
biogas from wet manure as compressed natural gas 0 0
biogas from dry manure as compressed natural gas 0 0
<*> Not including animal oil produced from animal by-products classified as category 3 material in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002.

Disaggregated default values for processing (including excess electricity): «ep — eee» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

sugar beet ethanol 19 26
wheat ethanol (process fuel not specified) 32 45
wheat ethanol (lignite as process fuel in CHP plant) 32 45
wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in conventional boiler) 21 30
wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant) 14 19
wheat ethanol (straw as process fuel in CHP plant) 1 1
corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant) 15 21
sugar cane ethanol 1 1
the part from renewable sources of ETBE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
the part from renewable sources of TAEE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
rape seed biodiesel 16 22
sunflower biodiesel 16 22
soybean biodiesel 18 26
palm oil biodiesel (process not specified) 35 49
palm oil biodiesel (process with methane capture at oil mill) 13 18
waste vegetable or animal oil biodiesel 9 13
hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed 10 13
hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower 10 13
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process not specified) 30 42
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process with methane capture at oil mill) 7 9
pure vegetable oil from rape seed 4 5
biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas 14 20
biogas from wet manure as compressed natural gas 8 11
biogas from dry manure as compressed natural gas 8 11

Disaggregated default values for transport and distribution: «etd» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse

(gCO2eq/MT)

sugar beet ethanol 2 2
wheat ethanol 2 2
corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced 2 2
sugar cane ethanol 9 9
the part from renewable sources of ETBE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
the part from renewable sources of TAEE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
rape seed biodiesel 1 1
sunflower biodiesel 1 1
soybean biodiesel 13 13
palm oil biodiesel 5 5
waste vegetable or animal oil biodiesel 1 1
hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed 1 1
hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower 1 1
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil 5 5
pure vegetable oil from rape seed 1 1
biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas 3 3
biogas from wet manure as compressed natural gas 5 5
biogas from dry manure as compressed natural gas 4 4

Total for cultivation, processing, transport and distribution

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

sugar beet ethanol 33 40
wheat ethanol (process fuel not specified) 57 70
wheat ethanol (lignite as process fuel in CHP plant) 57 70
wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in conventional boiler) 46 55
wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant) 39 44
wheat ethanol (straw as process fuel in CHP plant) 26 26
corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant) 37 43
sugar cane ethanol 24 24
the part from renewable sources of ETBE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
the part from renewable sources of TAEE Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used
rape seed biodiesel 46 52
sunflower biodiesel 35 41
soybean biodiesel 50 58
palm oil biodiesel (process not specified) 54 68
palm oil biodiesel (process with methane capture at oil mill) 32 37
waste vegetable or animal oil biodiesel 10 14
hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed 41 44
hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower 29 32
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process not specified) 50 62
hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process with methane capture at oil mill) 27 29
pure vegetable oil from rape seed 35 36
biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas 17 23
biogas from wet manure as compressed natural gas 13 16
biogas from dry manure as compressed natural gas 12 15
  1. Estimated disaggregated default values for future biofuels and bioliquids that were not on the market or were only on the market in negligible quantities in January 2008

 

Disaggregated default values for cultivation: «eec» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

wheat straw ethanol 3 3
waste wood ethanol 1 1
farmed wood ethanol 6 6
waste wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 1 1
farmed wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 4 4
waste wood DME 1 1
farmed wood DME 5 5
waste wood methanol 1 1
farmed wood methanol 5 5
the part from renewable sources of MTBE Equal to that of the methanol production pathway used

Disaggregated default values for processing (including excess electricity): «ep — eee» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

wheat straw ethanol 5 7
wood ethanol 12 17
wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 0 0
wood DME 0 0
wood methanol 0 0
the part from renewable sources of MTBE Equal to that of the methanol production pathway used

Disaggregated default values for transport and distribution: «etd» as defined in part C of this Annex

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

wheat straw ethanol 2 2
waste wood ethanol 4 4
farmed wood ethanol 2 2
waste wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 3 3
farmed wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 2 2
waste wood DME 4 4
farmed wood DME 2 2
waste wood methanol 4 4
farmed wood methanol 2 2
the part from renewable sources of MTBE Equal to that of the methanol production pathway used

Total for cultivation, processing, transport and distribution

Biofuel and bioliquid production pathway Typical greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

Default greenhouse gas emissions

(gCO2eq/MJ)

wheat straw ethanol 11 13
waste wood ethanol 17 22
farmed wood ethanol 20 25
waste wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 4 4
farmed wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel 6 6
waste wood DME 5 5
farmed wood DME 7 7
waste wood methanol 5 5
farmed wood methanol 7 7
the part from renewable sources of MTBE Equal to that of the methanol production pathway used

Annex VI

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HARMONISED TEMPLATE FOR NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY ACTION PLANS

 

  1. Expected final energy consumption:o

Gross final energy consumption in electricity, transport and heating and coling for 2020 taking into account the effects of energy efficiency policy measures.

  1. National sectoral 2020 targets and estimated shares of energy from renewable sources in electricity, heating and cooling and transport:

(a) target share of energy from renewable sources in electricity in 2020;

(b) estimated trajectory for the share of energy from renewable sources in electricity;

(c) target share of energy from renewable sources in heating and cooling in 2020;

(d) estimated trajectory for the share of energy from renewable sources in heating and cooling;

(e) estimated trajectory for the share of energy from renewable sources in transport;

(f) national indicative trajectory as referred to in Article 3(2) and part B of Annex I.

  1. Measures for achieving the targets:

(a) overview of all policies and measures concerning the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources;

(b) specific measures to fulfil the requirements of Articles 13, 14 and 16, including the need to extend or reinforce existing infrastructure to facilitate the integration of the quantities of energy from renewable sources needed to achieve the 2020 national target, measures to accelerate the authorisation procedures, measures to reduce non-technological barriers and measures concerning Articles 17 to 21;

(c) support schemes for the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources in electricity applied by the Member State or a group of Member States;

(d) support schemes for the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources in heating and cooling applied by the Member State or a group of Member States;

(e) support schemes for the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources in transport applied by the Member State or a group of Member States;

(f) specific measures on the promotion of the use of energy from biomass, especially for new biomass mobilisation taking into account:

(i) biomass availability: both domestic potential and imports;

(ii) measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors);

(g) planned use of statistical transfers between Member States and planned participation in joint projects with other Member States and third countries:

(i) the estimated excess production of energy from renewable sources compared to the indicative trajectory which could be transferred to other Member States;

(ii) the estimated potential for joint projects;

(iii) the estimated demand for energy from renewable sources to be satisfied by means other than domestic production.

  1. Assessments:

(a) the total contribution expected of each renewable energy technology to meet the mandatory 2020 targets and the indicative trajectory for the shares of energy from renewable sources in electricity, heating and cooling and transport;

(b) the total contribution expected of the energy efficiency and energy saving measures to meet the mandatory 2020 targets and the indicative trajectory for the shares of energy from renewable sources in electricity, heating and cooling and transport.

Annex VII

ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY FROM HEAT PUMPS

The amount of aerothermal, geothermal or hydrothermal energy captured by heat pumps to be considered energy from renewable sources for the purposes of this Directive, ERES, shall be calculated in accordance with the following formula:

ERES = Qusable * (1 — 1 / SPF)

where

— Qusable = the estimated total usable heat delivered by heat pumps fulfilling the criteria referred to in Article 5(4), implemented as follows: Only heat pumps for which  shall be taken into account,

— SPF = the estimated average seasonal performance factor for those heat pumps,

—  is the ratio between total gross production of electricity and the primary energy consumption for electricity production and shall be calculated as an EU average based on Eurostat data.

By 1 January 2013, the Commission shall establish guidelines on how Member States are to estimate the values of Qusable and SPF for the different heat pump technologies and applications, taking into consideration differences in climatic conditions, especially very cold climates.

Annex VIII

Part A

Provisional estimated indirect land-use change emissions from biofuel and bioliquid feedstocks (gCO2eq/MJ) <*>

———————————

<*> The mean values reported here represent a weighted average of the individually modelled feedstock values. The magnitude of the values in the Annex is sensitive to the range of assumptions (such as treatment of co-products, yield developments, carbon stocks and displacement of other commodities) used in the economic models developed for their estimation. Although it is therefore not possible to fully characterise the uncertainty range associated with such estimates, a sensitivity analysis conducted on the results based on a random variation of key parameters, a so-called Monte Carlo analysis, was conducted.

Feedstock group Mean <*> Interpercentile range derived from the sensitivity analysis <**>
Cereals and other starch-rich crops 12 8 to 16
Sugars 13 4 to 17
Oil crops 55 33 to 66
<*> The mean values included here represent a weighted average of the individually modelled feedstock values.

<**> The range included here reflects 90% of the results using the fifth and ninety-fifth percentile values resulting from the analysis. The fifth percentile suggests a value below which 5% of the observations were found (i.e. 5% of total data used showed results below 8, 4, and 33 gCO2eq/MJ). The ninety-fifth percentile suggests a value below which 95% of the observations were found (i.e. 5% of total data used showed results above 16, 17, and 66 gCO2eq/MJ).

Part B

Biofuels and bioliquids for which the estimated indirect land-use change emissions are considered to be zero

 

Biofuels and bioliquids produced from the following feedstock categories will be considered to have estimated indirect land-use change emissions of zero:

(1) feedstocks which are not listed under part A of this Annex.

(2) feedstocks, the production of which has led to direct land-use change, i.e. a change from one of the following IPCC land cover categories: forest land, grassland, wetlands, settlements, or other land, to cropland or perennial cropland <*>. In such a case a direct land-use change emission value (el) should have been calculated in accordance with point 7 of part C of Annex V.

———————————

<*> Perennial crops are defined as multi-annual crops, the stem of which is usually not annually harvested such as short rotation coppice and oil palm.

Annex IX

Part A. Feedstocks and fuels, the contribution of which towards the target referred to in the first subparagraph of Article 3(4) shall be considered to be twice their energy content:

(a) Algae if cultivated on land in ponds or photobioreactors.

(b) Biomass fraction of mixed municipal waste, but not separated household waste subject to recycling targets under point (a) of Article 11(2) of Directive 2008/98/EC.

(c) Bio-waste as defined in Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/98/EC from private households subject to separate collection as defined in Article 3(11) of that Directive.

(d) Biomass fraction of industrial waste not fit for use in the food or feed chain, including material from retail and wholesale and the agro-food and fish and aquaculture industry, and excluding feedstocks listed in part B of this Annex.

(e) Straw.

(f) Animal manure and sewage sludge.

(g) Palm oil mill effluent and empty palm fruit bunches.

(h) Tall oil pitch.

(i) Crude glycerine.

(j) Bagasse.

(k) Grape marcs and wine lees.

(l) Nut shells.

(m) Husks.

(n) Cobs cleaned of kernels of corn.

(o) Biomass fraction of wastes and residues from forestry and forest-based industries, i.e. bark, branches, pre-commercial thinnings, leaves, needles, tree tops, saw dust, cutter shavings, black liquor, brown liquor, fibre sludge, lignin and tall oil.

(p) Other non-food cellulosic material as defined in point (s) of the second paragraph of Article 2.

(q) Other ligno-cellulosic material as defined in point (r) of the second paragraph of Article 2 except saw logs and veneer logs.

(r) Renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin.

(s) Carbon capture and utilisation for transport purposes, if the energy source is renewable in accordance with point (a) of the second paragraph of Article 2.

(t) Bacteria, if the energy source is renewable in accordance with point (a) of the second paragraph of Article 2.

 

Part B. Feedstocks, the contribution of which towards the target referred to in the first subparagraph of Article 3(4) shall be considered to be twice their energy content:

(a) Used cooking oil.

(b) Animal fats classified as categories 1 and 2 in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council <*>

———————————

<*> Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 laying down health rules as regards animal by-products and derived products not intended for human consumption and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 (Animal by-products Regulation) (OJ L 300, 14.11.2009, p. 1).

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