NATIONAL OVERALL TARGETS FOR THE SHARE OF ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES IN GROSS FINAL CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN 2020 <*>
<*> In order to be able to achieve the national objectives set out in this Annex, it is underlined that the State aid guidelines for environmental protection recognise the continued need for national mechanisms of support for the promotion of energy from renewable sources.
- National overall targets
|Share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy, 2005 (S2005)||Target for share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy, 2020 (S2020)|
- Indicative trajectory
The indicative trajectory referred to in Article 3(2) shall consist of the following shares of energy from renewable sources:
S2005 + 0,20 (S2020 – S2005), as an average for the two-year period 2011 to 2012;
S2005 + 0,30 (S2020 – S2005), as an average for the two-year period 2013 to 2014;
S2005 + 0,45 (S2020 – S2005), as an average for the two-year period 2015 to 2016; and
S2005 + 0,65 (S2020 – S2005), as an average for the two-year period 2017 to 2018,
S2005 = the share for that Member State in 2005 as indicated in the table in part A,
S2020 = the share for that Member State in 2020 as indicated in the table in part A.
NORMALISATION RULE FOR ACCOUNTING FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATED FROM HYDROPOWER AND WIND POWER
The following rule shall be applied for the purpose of accounting for electricity generated from hydropower in a given Member State:
|QN(norm)||=||normalised electricity generated by all hydropower plants of the Member State in year N, for accounting purposes;|
|Qi||=||the quantity of electricity actually generated in year i by all hydropower plants of the Member State measured in GWh, excluding production from pumped storage units using water that has previously been pumped uphill;|
|Ci||=||the total installed capacity, net of pumped storage, of all hydropower plants of the Member State at the end of year i, measured in MW.|
The following rule shall be applied for the purpose of accounting for electricity generated from wind power in a given Member State:
|QN(norm)||=||normalised electricity generated by all wind power plants of the Member State in year N, for accounting purposes;|
|Qi||=||the quantity of electricity actually generated in year i by all wind power plants of the Member State measured in GWh;|
|Cj||=||the total installed capacity of all the wind power plants of the Member State at the end of year j, measured in MW;|
|n||=||4 or the number of years preceding year N for which capacity and production data are available for the Member State in question, whichever is lower.|
ENERGY CONTENT OF TRANSPORT FUELS
|Fuel||Energy content by weight
(lower calorific value, MJ/kg)
|Energy content by volume
(lower calorific value, MJ/l)
|Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass)||27||21|
|Bio-ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether produced on the basis of bioethanol)||36 (of which 37% from renewable sources)||27 (of which 37% from renewable sources)|
|Biomethanol (methanol produced from biomass, to be used as biofuel)||20||16|
|Bio-MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether produced on the basis of biomethanol)||35 (of which 22% from renewable sources)||26 (of which 22% from renewable sources)|
|Bio-DME (dimethylether produced from biomass, to be used as biofuel)||28||19|
|Bio-TAEE (tertiary-amyl-ethyl-ether produced on the basis of bioethanol)||38 (of which 29% from renewable sources)||29 (of which 29% from renewable sources)|
|Biobutanol (butanol produced from biomass, to be used as biofuel)||33||27|
|Biodiesel (methyl-ester produced from vegetable or animal oil, of diesel quality, to be used as biofuel)||37||33|
|Fischer-Tropsch diesel (a synthetic hydrocarbon or mixture of synthetic hydrocarbons produced from biomass)||44||34|
|Hydrotreated vegetable oil (vegetable oil thermochemically treated with hydrogen)||44||34|
|Pure vegetable oil (oil produced from oil plants through pressing, extraction or comparable procedures, crude or refined but chemically unmodified, when compatible with the type of engines involved and the corresponding emission requirements)||37||34|
|Biogas (a fuel gas produced from biomass and/or from the biodegradable fraction of waste, that can be purified to natural gas quality, to be used as biofuel, or wood gas)||50||–|
CERTIFICATION OF INSTALLERS
The certification schemes or equivalent qualification schemes referred to in Article 14(3) shall be based on the following criteria:
- The certification or qualification process shall be transparent and clearly defined by the Member State or the administrative body they appoint.
- Biomass, heat pump, shallow geothermal and solar photovoltaic and solar thermal installers shall be certified by an accredited training programme or training provider.
- The accreditation of the training programme or provider shall be effected by Member States or administrative bodies they appoint. The accrediting body shall ensure that the training programme offered by the training provider has continuity and regional or national coverage. The training provider shall have adequate technical facilities to provide practical training, including some laboratory equipment or corresponding facilities to provide practical training. The training provider shall also offer in addition to the basic training, shorter refresher courses on topical issues, including on new technologies, to enable life-long learning in installations. The training provider may be the manufacturer of the equipment or system, institutes or associations.
- The training leading to installer certification or qualification shall include both theoretical and practical parts. At the end of the training, the installer must have the skills required to install the relevant equipment and systems to meet the performance and reliability needs of the customer, incorporate quality craftsmanship, and comply with all applicable codes and standards, including energy and eco-labelling.
- The training course shall end with an examination leading to a certificate or qualification. The examination shall include a practical assessment of successfully installing biomass boilers or stoves, heat pumps, shallow geothermal installations, solar photovoltaic or solar thermal installations.
- The certification schemes or equivalent qualification schemes referred to in Article 14(3) shall take due account of the following guidelines:
(a) Accredited training programmes should be offered to installers with work experience, who have undergone, or are undergoing, the following types of training:
(i) in the case of biomass boiler and stove installers: training as a plumber, pipe fitter, heating engineer or technician of sanitary and heating or cooling equipment as a prerequisite;
(ii) in the case of heat pump installers: training as a plumber or refrigeration engineer and have basic electrical and plumbing skills (cutting pipe, soldering pipe joints, gluing pipe joints, lagging, sealing fittings, testing for leaks and installation of heating or cooling systems) as a prerequisite;
(iii) in the case of a solar photovoltaic or solar thermal installer: training as a plumber or electrician and have plumbing, electrical and roofing skills, including knowledge of soldering pipe joints, gluing pipe joints, sealing fittings, testing for plumbing leaks, ability to connect wiring, familiar with basic roof materials, flashing and sealing methods as a prerequisite; or
(iv) a vocational training scheme to provide an installer with adequate skills corresponding to a three years education in the skills referred to in point (a), (b) or (c) including both classroom and workplace learning.
(b) The theoretical part of the biomass stove and boiler installer training should give an overview of the market situation of biomass and cover ecological aspects, biomass fuels, logistics, fire protection, related subsidies, combustion techniques, firing systems, optimal hydraulic solutions, cost and profitability comparison as well as the design, installation, and maintenance of biomass boilers and stoves. The training should also provide good knowledge of any European standards for technology and biomass fuels, such as pellets, and biomass related national and Community law.
(c) The theoretical part of the heat pump installer training should give an overview of the market situation for heat pumps and cover geothermal resources and ground source temperatures of different regions, soil and rock identification for thermal conductivity, regulations on using geothermal resources, feasibility of using heat pumps in buildings and determining the most suitable heat pump system, and knowledge about their technical requirements, safety, air filtering, connection with the heat source and system layout. The training should also provide good knowledge of any European standards for heat pumps, and of relevant national and Community law. The installer should demonstrate the following key competences:
(i) a basic understanding of the physical and operation principles of a heat pump, including characteristics of the heat pump circle: context between low temperatures of the heat sink, high temperatures of the heat source, and the efficiency of the system, determination of the coefficient of performance (COP) and seasonal performance factor (SPF);
(ii) an understanding of the components and their function within a heat pump circle, including the compressor, expansion valve, evaporator, condenser, fixtures and fittings, lubricating oil, refrigerant, superheating and sub-cooling and cooling possibilities with heat pumps; and
(iii) the ability to choose and size the components in typical installation situations, including determining the typical values of the heat load of different buildings and for hot water production based on energy consumption, determining the capacity of the heat pump on the heat load for hot water production, on the storage mass of the building and on interruptible current supply; determine buffer tank component and its volume and integration of a second heating system.
(d) The theoretical part of the solar photovoltaic and solar thermal installer training should give an overview of the market situation of solar products and cost and profitability comparisons, and cover ecological aspects, components, characteristics and dimensioning of solar systems, selection of accurate systems and dimensioning of components, determination of the heat demand, fire protection, related subsidies, as well as the design, installation, and maintenance of solar photovoltaic and solar thermal installations. The training should also provide good knowledge of any European standards for technology, and certification such as Solar Keymark, and related national and Community law. The installer should demonstrate the following key competences:
(i) the ability to work safely using the required tools and equipment and implementing safety codes and standards and identify plumbing, electrical and other hazards associated with solar installations;
(ii) the ability to identify systems and their components specific to active and passive systems, including the mechanical design, and determine the components’ location and system layout and configuration;
(iii) the ability to determine the required installation area, orientation and tilt for the solar photovoltaic and solar water heater, taking account of shading, solar access, structural integrity, the appropriateness of the installation for the building or the climate and identify different installation methods suitable for roof types and the balance of system equipment required for the installation; and
(iv) for solar photovoltaic systems in particular, the ability to adapt the electrical design, including determining design currents, selecting appropriate conductor types and ratings for each electrical circuit, determining appropriate size, ratings and locations for all associated equipment and subsystems and selecting an appropriate interconnection point.
(e) The installer certification should be time restricted, so that a refresher seminar or event would be necessary for continued certification.
RULES FOR CALCULATING THE GREENHOUSE GAS IMPACT OF BIOFUELS, BIOLIQUIDS AND THEIR FOSSIL FUEL COMPARATORS
- Typical and default values for biofuels if produced with no net carbon emissions from land-use change
|Biofuel production pathway||Typical greenhouse gas emission saving||Default greenhouse gas emission saving|
|sugar beet ethanol||61%||52%|
|wheat ethanol (process fuel not specified)||32%||16%|
|wheat ethanol (lignite as process fuel in CHP plant)||32%||16%|
|wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in conventional boiler)||45%||34%|
|wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant)||53%||47%|
|wheat ethanol (straw as process fuel in CHP plant)||69%||69%|
|corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant)||56%||49%|
|sugar cane ethanol||71%||71%|
|the part from renewable sources of ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether (ETBE)||Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used|
|the part from renewable sources of tertiary-amyl-ethyl-ether (TAEE)||Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used|
|rape seed biodiesel||45%||38%|
|palm oil biodiesel (process not specified)||36%||19%|
|palm oil biodiesel (process with methane capture at oil mill)||62%||56%|
|waste vegetable or animal <*> oil biodiesel||88%||83%|
|hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed||51%||47%|
|hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower||65%||62%|
|hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process not specified)||40%||26%|
|hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process with methane capture at oil mill)||68%||65%|
|pure vegetable oil from rape seed||58%||57%|
|biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas||80%||73%|
|biogas from wet manure as compressed natural gas||84%||81%|
|biogas from dry manure as compressed natural gas||86%||82%|
|<*> Not including animal oil produced from animal by-products classified as category 3 material in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 October 2002 laying down health rules on animal by-products not intended for human consumption <*>
<*> JO L 273 du 10.10.2002, p. 1.
- Estimated typical and default values for future biofuels that were not on the market or were on the market only in negligible quantities in January 2008, if produced with no net carbon emissions from land-use change
|Biofuel production pathway||Typical greenhouse gas emission saving||Default greenhouse gas emission saving|
|wheat straw ethanol||87%||85%|
|waste wood ethanol||80%||74%|
|farmed wood ethanol||76%||70%|
|waste wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel||95%||95%|
|farmed wood Fischer-Tropsch diesel||93%||93%|
|waste wood dimethylether (DME)||95%||95%|
|farmed wood DME||92%||92%|
|waste wood methanol||94%||94%|
|farmed wood methanol||91%||91%|
|the part from renewable sources of methyl-tertio-butyl-ether (MTBE)||Equal to that of the methanol production pathway used|