DIRECTIVE No. 2009/28/EC
OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL ON THE PROMOTION OF THE USE OF ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES AND AMENDING AND SUBSEQUENTLY REPEALING
DIRECTIVES 2001/77/EC AND 2003/30/EC
(Text with EEA relevance)
(Amended by: Council Directive 2013/18/EU of 13 May 2013, Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015)
The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union,
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof, and Article 95 thereof in relation to Articles 17, 18 and 19 of this Directive,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee <*>,
<*> Opinion of 17 September 2008 (OJ C 77, 31.3.2009, p. 43).
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions <*>,
<*> OJ C 325, 19.12.2008, p. 12.
Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty <*>,
<*> Opinion of the European Parliament of 17 December 2008 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and Council Decision of 6 April 2009.
(1) The control of European energy consumption and the increased use of energy from renewable sources, together with energy savings and increased energy efficiency, constitute important parts of the package of measures needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and comply with the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and with further Community and international greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments beyond 2012. Those factors also have an important part to play in promoting the security of energy supply, promoting technological development and innovation and providing opportunities for employment and regional development, especially in rural and isolated areas.
(2) In particular, increasing technological improvements, incentives for the use and expansion of public transport, the use of energy efficiency technologies and the use of energy from renewable sources in transport are some of the most effective tools by which the Community can reduce its dependence on imported oil in the transport sector, in which the security of energy supply problem is most acute, and influence the fuel market for transport.
(3) The opportunities for establishing economic growth through innovation and a sustainable competitive energy policy have been recognised. Production of energy from renewable sources often depends on local or regional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The opportunities for growth and employment that investment in regional and local production of energy from renewable sources bring about in the Member States and their regions are important. The Commission and the Member States should therefore support national and regional development measures in those areas, encourage the exchange of best practices in production of energy from renewable sources between local and regional development initiatives and promote the use of structural funding in this area.
(4) When favouring the development of the market for renewable energy sources, it is necessary to take into account the positive impact on regional and local development opportunities, export prospects, social cohesion and employment opportunities, in particular as concerns SMEs and independent energy producers.
(5) In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions within the Community and reduce its dependence on energy imports, the development of energy from renewable sources should be closely linked to increased energy efficiency.
(6) It is appropriate to support the demonstration and commercialisation phase of decentralised renewable energy technologies. The move towards decentralised energy production has many benefits, including the utilisation of local energy sources, increased local security of energy supply, shorter transport distances and reduced energy transmission losses. Such decentralisation also fosters community development and cohesion by providing income sources and creating jobs locally.
(7) Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market <*> and Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport <**> established definitions for different types of energy from renewable sources. Directive 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity <***> established definitions for the electricity sector in general. In the interests of legal certainty and clarity it is appropriate to use the same or similar definitions in this Directive.
<*> OJ L 283, 27.10.2001, p. 33.
<**> OJ L 123, 17.5.2003, p. 42.
<***> OJ L 176, 15.7.2003, p. 37.
(8) The Commission communication of 10 January 2007 entitled “Renewable Energy Roadmap – Renewable energies in the 21st century: building a more sustainable future” demonstrated that a 20% target for the overall share of energy from renewable sources and a 10% target for energy from renewable sources in transport would be appropriate and achievable objectives, and that a framework that includes mandatory targets should provide the business community with the long-term stability it needs to make rational, sustainable investments in the renewable energy sector which are capable of reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels and boosting the use of new energy technologies. Those targets exist in the context of the 20% improvement in energy efficiency by 2020 set out in the Commission communication of 19 October 2006 entitled “Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential”, which was endorsed by the European Council of March 2007, and by the European Parliament in its resolution of 31 January 2008 on that Action Plan.
(9) The European Council of March 2007 reaffirmed the Community’s commitment to the Community-wide development of energy from renewable sources beyond 2010. It endorsed a mandatory target of a 20% share of energy from renewable sources in overall Community energy consumption by 2020 and a mandatory 10% minimum target to be achieved by all Member States for the share of biofuels in transport petrol and diesel consumption by 2020, to be introduced in a cost-effective way. It stated that the binding character of the biofuel target is appropriate, subject to production being sustainable, second-generation biofuels becoming commercially available and Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels <*> being amended to allow for adequate levels of blending. The European Council of March 2008 repeated that it is essential to develop and fulfil effective sustainability criteria for biofuels and ensure the commercial availability of second-generation biofuels. The European Council of June 2008 referred again to the sustainability criteria and the development of second-generation biofuels, and underlined the need to assess the possible impacts of biofuel production on agricultural food products and to take action, if necessary, to address shortcomings. It also stated that further assessment should be made of the environmental and social consequences of the production and consumption of biofuels.
<*> OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58.
(10) In its resolution of 25 September 2007 on the Road Map for Renewable Energy in Europe <*>, the European Parliament called on the Commission to present, by the end of 2007, a proposal for a legislative framework for energy from renewable sources, referring to the importance of setting targets for the shares of energy from renewable sources at Community and Member State level.
<*> OJ C 219 E, 28.8.2008, p. 82.
(11) It is necessary to set transparent and unambiguous rules for calculating the share of energy from renewable sources and for defining those sources. In this context, the energy present in oceans and other water bodies in the form of waves, marine currents, tides, ocean thermal energy gradients or salinity gradients should be included.
(12) The use of agricultural material such as manure, slurry and other animal and organic waste for biogas production has, in view of the high greenhouse gas emission saving potential, significant environmental advantages in terms of heat and power production and its use as biofuel. Biogas installations can, as a result of their decentralised nature and the regional investment structure, contribute significantly to sustainable development in rural areas and offer farmers new income opportunities.
(13) In the light of the positions taken by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission, it is appropriate to establish mandatory national targets consistent with a 20% share of energy from renewable sources and a 10% share of energy from renewable sources in transport in Community energy consumption by 2020.
(14) The main purpose of mandatory national targets is to provide certainty for investors and to encourage continuous development of technologies which generate energy from all types of renewable sources. Deferring a decision about whether a target is mandatory until a future event takes place is thus not appropriate.
(15) The starting point, the renewable energy potential and the energy mix of each Member State vary. It is therefore necessary to translate the Community 20% target into individual targets for each Member State, with due regard to a fair and adequate allocation taking account of Member States’ different starting points and potentials, including the existing level of energy from renewable sources and the energy mix. It is appropriate to do this by sharing the required total increase in the use of energy from renewable sources between Member States on the basis of an equal increase in each Member State’s share weighted by their GDP, modulated to reflect their starting points, and by accounting in terms of gross final consumption of energy, with account being taken of Member States’ past efforts with regard to the use of energy from renewable sources.
(16) By contrast, it is appropriate for the 10% target for energy from renewable sources in transport to be set at the same level for each Member State in order to ensure consistency in transport fuel specifications and availability. Because transport fuels are traded easily, Member States with low endowments of the relevant resources will easily be able to obtain biofuels from elsewhere. While it would technically be possible for the Community to meet its target for the use of energy from renewable sources in transport solely from domestic production, it is both likely and desirable that the target will in fact be met through a combination of domestic production and imports. To this end, the Commission should monitor the supply of the Community market for biofuels, and should, as appropriate, propose relevant measures to achieve a balanced approach between domestic production and imports, taking into account, inter alia, the development of multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations, environmental, social and economic considerations, and the security of energy supply.
(17) The improvement of energy efficiency is a key objective of the Community, and the aim is to achieve a 20% improvement in energy efficiency by 2020. That aim, together with existing and future legislation including Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings <*>, Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products <**>, and Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services <***>, has a critical role to play in ensuring that the climate and energy objectives are being achieved at least cost, and can also provide new opportunities for the European Union’s economy. Energy efficiency and energy saving policies are some of the most effective methods by which Member States can increase the percentage share of energy from renewable sources, and Member States will thus more easily achieve the overall national and transport targets for energy from renewable sources laid down by this Directive.
<*> OJ L 1, 4.1.2003, p. 65.
<**> OJ L 191, 22.7.2005, p. 29.
<***> OJ L 114, 27.4.2006, p. 64.
(18) It will be incumbent upon Member States to make significant improvements in energy efficiency in all sectors in order more easily to achieve their targets for energy from renewable sources, which are expressed as a percentage of gross final consumption of energy. The need for energy efficiency in the transport sector is imperative because a mandatory percentage target for energy from renewable sources is likely to become increasingly difficult to achieve sustainably if overall demand for energy for transport continues to rise. The mandatory 10% target for transport to be achieved by all Member States should therefore be defined as that share of final energy consumed in transport which is to be achieved from renewable sources as a whole, and not from biofuels alone.
(19) To ensure that the mandatory national overall targets are achieved, Member States should work towards an indicative trajectory tracing a path towards the achievement of their final mandatory targets. They should establish a national renewable energy action plan including information on sectoral targets, while having in mind that there are different uses of biomass and therefore it is essential to mobilise new biomass resources. In addition, Member States should set out measures to achieve those targets. Each Member State should assess, when evaluating its expected gross final consumption of energy in its national renewable energy action plan, the contribution which energy efficiency and energy saving measures can make to achieving its national targets. Member States should take into account the optimal combination of energy efficiency technologies with energy from renewable sources.
(20) To permit the benefits of technological progress and economies of scale to be reaped, the indicative trajectory should take into account the possibility of a more rapid growth in the use of energy from renewable sources in the future. Thus special attention can be given to sectors that suffer disproportionately from the absence of technological progress and economies of scale and therefore remain under-developed, but which, in future, could significantly contribute to reaching the targets for 2020.
(21) The indicative trajectory should take 2005 as its starting point because that is the latest year for which reliable data on national shares of energy from renewable sources are available.
(22) The achievement of the objectives of this Directive requires that the Community and Member States dedicate a significant amount of financial resources to research and development in relation to renewable energy technologies. In particular, the European Institute of Innovation and Technology should give high priority to the research and development of renewable energy technologies.
(23) Member States may encourage local and regional authorities to set targets in excess of national targets and to involve local and regional authorities in drawing up national renewable energy action plans and in raising awareness of the benefits of energy from renewable sources.
(24) In order to exploit the full potential of biomass, the Community and the Member States should promote greater mobilisation of existing timber reserves and the development of new forestry systems.
(25) Member States have different renewable energy potentials and operate different schemes of support for energy from renewable sources at the national level. The majority of Member States apply support schemes that grant benefits solely to energy from renewable sources that is produced on their territory. For the proper functioning of national support schemes it is vital that Member States can control the effect and costs of their national support schemes according to their different potentials. One important means to achieve the aim of this Directive is to guarantee the proper functioning of national support schemes, as under Directive 2001/77/EC, in order to maintain investor confidence and allow Member States to design effective national measures for target compliance. This Directive aims at facilitating cross-border support of energy from renewable sources without affecting national support schemes. It introduces optional cooperation mechanisms between Member States which allow them to agree on the extent to which one Member State supports the energy production in another and on the extent to which the energy production from renewable sources should count towards the national overall target of one or the other. In order to ensure the effectiveness of both measures of target compliance, i.e. national support schemes and cooperation mechanisms, it is essential that Member States are able to determine if and to what extent their national support schemes apply to energy from renewable sources produced in other Member States and to agree on this by applying the cooperation mechanisms provided for in this Directive.
(26) It is desirable that energy prices reflect external costs of energy production and consumption, including, as appropriate, environmental, social and healthcare costs.
(27) Public support is necessary to reach the Community’s objectives with regard to the expansion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, in particular for as long as electricity prices in the internal market do not reflect the full environmental and social costs and benefits of energy sources used.
(28) The Community and the Member States should strive to reduce total consumption of energy in transport and increase energy efficiency in transport. The principal means of reducing consumption of energy in transport include transport planning, support for public transport, increasing the share of electric cars in production and producing cars which are more energy efficient and smaller both in size and in engine capacity.
(29) Member States should aim to diversify the mix of energy from renewable sources in all transport sectors. The Commission should present a report to the European Parliament and the Council by 1 June 2015 outlining the potential for increasing the use of energy from renewable sources in each transport sector.
(30) In calculating the contribution of hydropower and wind power for the purposes of this Directive, the effects of climatic variation should be smoothed through the use of a normalisation rule. Further, electricity produced in pumped storage units from water that has previously been pumped uphill should not be considered to be electricity produced from renewable energy sources.
(31) Heat pumps enabling the use of aerothermal, geothermal or hydrothermal heat at a useful temperature level need electricity or other auxiliary energy to function. The energy used to drive heat pumps should therefore be deducted from the total usable heat. Only heat pumps with an output that significantly exceeds the primary energy needed to drive it should be taken into account.
(32) Passive energy systems use building design to harness energy. This is considered to be saved energy. To avoid double counting, energy harnessed in this way should not be taken into account for the purposes of this Directive.
(33) Some Member States have a large share of aviation in their gross final consumption of energy. In view of the current technological and regulatory constraints that prevent the commercial use of biofuels in aviation, it is appropriate to provide a partial exemption for such Member States, by excluding from the calculation of their gross final consumption of energy in national air transport, the amount by which they exceed one-and-a-half times the Community average gross final consumption of energy in aviation in 2005, as assessed by Eurostat, i.e. 6,18%. Cyprus and Malta, due to their insular and peripheral character, rely on aviation as a mode of transport, which is essential for their citizens and their economy. As a result, Cyprus and Malta have a gross final consumption of energy in national air transport which is disproportionally high, i.e. more than three times the Community average in 2005, and are thus disproportionately affected by the current technological and regulatory constraints. For those Member States it is therefore appropriate to provide that the exemption should cover the amount by which they exceed the Community average gross final consumption of energy in aviation in 2005 as assessed by Eurostat, i.e. 4,12%.
(34) To obtain an energy model that supports energy from renewable sources there is a need to encourage strategic cooperation between Member States, involving, as appropriate, regions and local authorities.
(35) Whilst having due regard to the provisions of this Directive, Member States should be encouraged to pursue all appropriate forms of cooperation in relation to the objectives set out in this Directive. Such cooperation can take place at all levels, bilaterally or multilaterally. Apart from the mechanisms with effect on target calculation and target compliance, which are exclusively provided for in this Directive, namely statistical transfers between Member States, joint projects and joint support schemes, cooperation can also take the form of, for example, exchanges of information and best practices, as provided for, in particular, in the transparency platform established by this Directive, and other voluntary coordination between all types of support schemes.
(36) To create opportunities for reducing the cost of achieving the targets laid down in this Directive, it is appropriate both to facilitate the consumption in Member States of energy produced from renewable sources in other Member States, and to enable Member States to count energy from renewable sources consumed in other Member States towards their own national targets. For this reason, flexibility measures are required, but they remain under Member States’ control in order not to affect their ability to reach their national targets. Those flexibility measures take the form of statistical transfers, joint projects between Member States or joint support schemes.
(37) It should be possible for imported electricity, produced from renewable energy sources outside the Community, to count towards Member States’ targets. However, to avoid a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions through the diversion of existing renewable sources and their complete or partial replacement by conventional energy sources, only electricity produced by renewable energy installations that become operational after the entry into force of this Directive or by the increased capacity of an installation that was refurbished after that date should be eligible to be counted. In order to guarantee an adequate effect of energy from renewable sources replacing conventional energy in the Community as well as in third countries it is appropriate to ensure that such imports can be tracked and accounted for in a reliable way. Agreements with third countries concerning the organisation of such trade in electricity from renewable energy sources will be considered. If, by virtue of a decision taken under the Energy Community Treaty <*> to that effect, the contracting parties to that treaty become bound by the relevant provisions of this Directive, the measures of cooperation between Member States provided for in this Directive will be applicable to them.
<*> OJ L 198, 20.7.2006, p. 18.
(38) When Member States undertake joint projects with one or more third countries regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, it is appropriate that those joint projects relate only to newly constructed installations or to installations with newly increased capacity. This will help ensure that the proportion of energy from renewable sources in the third country’s total energy consumption is not reduced due to the importation of energy from renewable sources into the Community. In addition, the Member States concerned should facilitate the domestic use by the third country concerned of part of the production of electricity by the installations covered by the joint project. Furthermore, the third country concerned should be encouraged by the Commission and Member States to develop a renewable energy policy, including ambitious targets.
(39) Noting that projects of high European interest in third countries, such as the Mediterranean Solar Plan, may need a long lead-time before being fully interconnected to the territory of the Community, it is appropriate to facilitate their development by allowing Member States to take into account in their national targets a limited amount of electricity produced by such projects during the construction of the interconnection.
(40) The procedure used by the administration responsible for supervising the authorisation, certification and licensing of renewable energy plants should be objective, transparent, non-discriminatory and proportionate when applying the rules to specific projects. In particular, it is appropriate to avoid any unnecessary burden that could arise by classifying renewable energy projects under installations which represent a high health risk.
(41) The lack of transparent rules and coordination between the different authorisation bodies has been shown to hinder the deployment of energy from renewable sources. Therefore the specific structure of the renewable energy sector should be taken into account when national, regional and local authorities review their administrative procedures for giving permission to construct and operate plants and associated transmission and distribution network infrastructures for the production of electricity, heating and cooling or transport fuels from renewable energy sources. Administrative approval procedures should be streamlined with transparent timetables for installations using energy from renewable sources. Planning rules and guidelines should be adapted to take into consideration cost-effective and environmentally beneficial renewable heating and cooling and electricity equipment.
(42) For the benefit of rapid deployment of energy from renewable sources and in view of their overall high sustainable and environmental beneficial quality, Member States should, when applying administrative rules, planning structures and legislation which are designed for licensing installations with respect to pollution reduction and control for industrial plants, for combating air pollution and for the prevention or minimisation of the discharge of dangerous substances in the environment, take into account the contribution of renewable energy sources towards meeting environmental and climate change objectives, in particular when compared to non-renewable energy installations.
(43) In order to stimulate the contribution by individual citizens to the objectives set out in this Directive, the relevant authorities should consider the possibility of replacing authorisations by simple notifications to the competent body when installing small decentralised devices for producing energy from renewable sources.
(44) The coherence between the objectives of this Directive and the Community’s other environmental legislation should be ensured. In particular, during the assessment, planning or licensing procedures for renewable energy installations, Member States should take account of all Community environmental legislation and the contribution made by renewable energy sources towards meeting environmental and climate change objectives, in particular when compared to non-renewable energy installations.
(45) National technical specifications and other requirements falling within the scope of Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations and rules on Information Society services <*>, relating for example to levels of quality, testing methods or conditions of use, should not create barriers for trade in renewable energy equipment and systems. Therefore, support schemes for energy from renewable sources should not prescribe national technical specifications which deviate from existing Community standards or require the supported equipment or systems to be certified or tested in a specified location or by a specified entity.
<*> OJ L 204, 21.7.1998, p. 37.
(46) It is appropriate for Member States to consider mechanisms for the promotion of district heating and cooling from energy from renewable sources.
(47) At national and regional level, rules and obligations for minimum requirements for the use of energy from renewable sources in new and renovated buildings have led to considerable increases in the use of energy from renewable sources. Those measures should be encouraged in a wider Community context, while promoting the use of more energy-efficient applications of energy from renewable sources through building regulations and codes.
(48) It may be appropriate for Member States, in order to facilitate and accelerate the setting of minimum levels for the use of energy from renewable sources in buildings, to provide that such levels are achieved by incorporating a factor for energy from renewable sources in meeting minimum energy performance requirements under Directive 2002/91/EC, relating to a cost-optimal reduction of carbon emissions per building.
(49) Information and training gaps, especially in the heating and cooling sector, should be removed in order to encourage the deployment of energy from renewable sources.
(50) In so far as the access or pursuit of the profession of installer is a regulated profession, the preconditions for the recognition of professional qualifications are laid down in Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications <*>. This Directive therefore applies without prejudice to Directive 2005/36/EC.
<*> OJ L 255, 30.9.2005, p. 22.
(51) While Directive 2005/36/EC lays down requirements for the mutual recognition of professional qualifications, including for architects, there is a further need to ensure that architects and planners properly consider an optimal combination of renewable energy sources and high-efficiency technologies in their plans and designs. Member States should therefore provide clear guidance in this regard. This should be done without prejudice to the provisions of Directive 2005/36/EC and in particular Articles 46 and 49 thereof.
(52) Guarantees of origin issued for the purpose of this Directive have the sole function of proving to a final customer that a given share or quantity of energy was produced from renewable sources. A guarantee of origin can be transferred, independently of the energy to which it relates, from one holder to another. However, with a view to ensuring that a unit of electricity from renewable energy sources is disclosed to a customer only once, double counting and double disclosure of guarantees of origin should be avoided. Energy from renewable sources in relation to which the accompanying guarantee of origin has been sold separately by the producer should not be disclosed or sold to the final customer as energy from renewable sources. It is important to distinguish between green certificates used for support schemes and guarantees of origin.
(53) It is appropriate to allow the emerging consumer market for electricity from renewable energy sources to contribute to the construction of new installations for energy from renewable sources. Member States should therefore be able to require electricity suppliers who disclose their energy mix to final customers in accordance with Article 3(6) of Directive 2003/54/EC, to include a minimum percentage of guarantees of origin from recently constructed installations producing energy from renewable sources, provided that such a requirement is in conformity with Community law.
(54) It is important to provide information on how the supported electricity is allocated to final customers in accordance with Article 3(6) of Directive 2003/54/EC. In order to improve the quality of that information to consumers, in particular as regards the amount of energy from renewable sources produced by new installations, the Commission should assess the effectiveness of the measures taken by Member States.
(55) Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market <*> provides for guarantees of origin for proving the origin of electricity produced from high-efficiency cogeneration plants. Such guarantees of origin cannot be used when disclosing the use of energy from renewable sources in accordance with Article 3(6) of Directive 2003/54/EC as this might result in double counting and double disclosure.
<*> OJ L 52, 21.2.2004, p. 50.